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Field dependence and student achievement in technology-based learning: a meta-analysis Open Access


Other title
Field Dependence
Technology-Based Learning
Student Achievement
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Karon, Dragon
Supervisor and department
Patricia Boechler, Educational Psychology
Examining committee member and department
George Buck, Educational Psychology
Catherine Adams, Secondary Education
Department of Educational Psychology

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Education
Degree level
This investigation was a synthesis of 35 research studies with a total sample size of 3,082 students selected on the basis of Witkin’s theory of Field Dependence-Independence. The Hunter-Schmidt approach to meta-analysis was used to determine if a difference in achievement exists between field dependent and field independent students within technology-based learning environments, and whether study, treatment or methodology variables influenced the effect size outcome. The results indicated an achievement difference in favor of field independent learners with a total mean weighted effect size of 0.426 and a pooled standard deviation of 0.311. However, a large proportion of population variance was not accounted for through statistical corrections. A subsequent moderator analysis indicated that the total heterogeneity for each moderator was significant; suggesting the variance among effect sizes was greater than could be expected by sampling error, and unidentified variables and study artifacts likely contributed to the overall effect size.
License granted by Karon Dragon ( on 2009-08-28T19:10:04Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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