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Primary Structure and Function of Three Gonadotropin- Open Access


Author or creator
Carolsfeld, J.
Powell, J.F.
Park, M.
Fischer, W.H.
Craig, A.G.
Chang, J.P.
Rivier, J.E.
Sherwood, N.M.
Additional contributors
chicken GNRH-II
direct inhibition
molecular mechanisms
testicular function
3 forms
gilthead seabream
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
The evolution of GnRH and the role of multiple forms within the brain are examined. Three forms of GnRH were purified from the brain of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) and characterized using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Two forms correspond with the known structures of chicken GnRH-II and salmon GnRH that are found in many vertebrate species. The third form, designated herring GnRH (hrGnRH), has a primary structure of pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-His-Gly-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-NH2. This novel peptide is a potent stimulator of gonadotropin II and GH release from dispersed fish pituitary cells. The content of hrGnRH in the pituitary was 8-fold that of salmon GnRH and 43-fold that of chicken GnRH-II, which provides supporting evidence that hrGnRH is involved in the release of gonadotropin. Herring is the most phylogenetically ancient animal in which three forms of GnRH have been isolated and sequenced. Our evidence suggests that the existence of three GnRHs in the brain of one species 1) is an ancestral condition for teleosts, 2) has the potential for separate regulation of the distinct GnRHs, and 3) may be an evolutionary advantage for refined control of reproduction in different environments.
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Copyright © 2000 by The Endocrine Society
Citation for previous publication
Carolsfeld, J., Powell, J.F., Park, M., Fischer, W.H., Craig, A.G., Chang, J.P., Rivier, J.E. and Sherwood, N.M. "Primary Structure and Function of Three Gonadotropin- Releasing Hormones, Including a Novel Form, from an Ancient Teleost, Herring." Endocrinology 141 (2000): 505-512.
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