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Functionalization and Characterization of Metal Oxide Coatings of Stainless Steel and Silica Nanoparticles Open Access


Other title
stainless steel
ABO blood antigens
silica coating
silica nanoparticles
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Slaney, Anne M
Supervisor and department
Buriak, Jillian (Chemistry)
Examining committee member and department
Chen, Jie (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Rivard, Eric (Chemistry)
Zhang, Jin (Chemical and Biomedical Engineering)
Gibbs-Davis, Julianne (Chemistry)
Department of Chemistry

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The development of tolerogens, fabricated devices eliciting tolerance toward incompatible donor ABO antigens in implant patients, is the ultimate goal of this project. This would permit ABO incompatible organ transplants, increase the donor pool for patients, increase efficiency in the use of available organs, reduce waitlist times and reduce mortality rates of patients. Stainless steel stents and silica nanoparticles were chosen as platforms for the stationary and circulating tolerogens. Stainless steel was coated with silica by solgel dip-coating, electrodeposition, and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The coatings were evaluated by CV, EIS, SEM, AFM, VASE, FTIR, XPS, and AES. Of the silica films, those deposited by ALD provided superior insulating, conformal, and thin coatings. These silica ALD films outperformed even titania ALD films upon stressing. Silica ALD films were subsequently functionalized with mixtures of silane derivatives of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), to prevent nonspecific protein binding, and monosaccharides (MS) or trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide (TS) antigens. Functionalizations were characterized by FTIR, XPS and UV-Vis following enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Effective functionalization allowing biological availability and activity even after incubation in blood plasma was confirmed. Microarray microscope slides were similarly developed with all ABO antigen subtypes, characterized by ToF-SIMS and ELISA, and proved useful in detecting antibodies in human blood samples. Silica nanoparticles, including fluorescent and magnetic varieties, in a range of sizes were prepared by sol-gel synthesis. The nanoparticles were evaluated by SEM, DLS, zeta potential measurements, fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry, two-photon excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and TEM. Different dye incorporation methods were used for effective detection of NPs, and additional silica layers improved fluorophore characteristics. Functionalization of the nanoparticles with PEG and MS or TS were determined successful using three different methods as characterized by FTIR, XPS and ELLA or ELISA and UV-Vis or flow cytometry. The most cost-effective method involved functionalizing nanoparticles with amine, which was optimized using an assay. The amine-terminated nanoparticles were used to tether a PEG linker molecule for covalent binding of PnP derivatives of MSs and TSs.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Slaney, A.; Wright, V.; Meloncelli, P.; Harris, K.; West, L.; Lowary, T.; Buriak, J., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2011, 3 (5), 1601-1612.

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