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Measuring Vehicle Particle Emission Factors: Applications and Techniques Open Access


Other title
gasoline direct injection
effective density
transit bus
Particulate emissions
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Momenimovahed, Ali
Supervisor and department
Checkel, David (Mechanical Engineering)
Olfert, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Olfert, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Evans, Greg (Chemical Engineering)
Hayes, Robert (Chemical Engineering)
Koch, Bob (Mechanical Engineering)
Checkel, David (Mechanical Engineering)
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The experimental work described in this thesis was conducted to study the particulate emissions from different automotive applications. The effect of fuel choice (gasoline vs. liquefied petroleum gas, LPG) on particle emissions from passenger vehicles was studied. It was shown LPG produces 5 times and 2 times less particles than gasoline in terms of number and mass emission factors, respectively. The effect of engine technology (2-stroke vs. 4-stroke) was also evaluated on particulate emissions from two wheelers. The particle emission factors from two wheelers were also compared with the values for passenger vehicles. It was found that two wheelers produce more particles than passenger vehicles on a per kilometer basis and they should be regulated in terms of particulate emissions as proposed for light duty vehicles. The effects of fuel choice and exhaust aftertreatment were also studied on diesel and CNG transit buses. It was shown that either CNG conversion or diesel particulate filters can improve the particle number emission factors relative to diesel buses. The feasibility and the accuracy of using an effective density function to measure the particle mass emission factor using particle size distributions for GDI vehicles was also examined. It is recommended that the size distribution effective density function method can be used with an uncertainty of 20% but only for the non-volatile fraction of the particles.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Effect of fuel choice on nanoparticle emission factors in LPG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 14 (1), 1−11.

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