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Rapid SAGD Simulation Considering Geomechanics for Closed Loop Reservoir Optimization Open Access


Other title
Reservoir Characterization
Kalman Filter
Thermal Recovery
Coupled Simulation
Proxy Modeling
Analytical Solution
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Azad, Ali
Supervisor and department
Chalaturnyk, Rick J (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Gates, Ian (Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary)
Leung, Juliana (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Scott, Don (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Bayat, Alireza (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Prasad, Vinay (Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
While numerical modeling and coupling techniques have been continuously studied, analytical solution or proxy modeling for geomechanical coupling of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has not been clearly addressed in the literature. Simulations aside, there is no particular study on the use of geomechanics in closed loop reservoir optimization. This research has been carried out to cover two major objectives; providing a low order model to work with real-time data, and also investigating high-resolution geomechanical-flow simulation to work with data assimilation algorithms for history matching and reservoir characterization. As the first step, a physics-based semi-analytical model was proposed based on the original Butler/Reis SAGD theory. The model was proposed for linear steam chamber geometry by modifying the variation of oil saturation in advance of the steam chamber. The model was then verified with the past experimental lab test results and numerical simulation results. Geomechanics was incorporated using the classical limit equilibrium theory. The linear geometry model was then replaced by circular geometry model to better simulate the rising and depletion stages of SAGD process. For the circular geometry model, a multiplier coefficient was defined to consider geomechanics called the geomechanical impact factor (GIF). The final version of the proposed model was used for history matching two SAGD projects, UTF phases A and B. The application of analytical models in automated history matching and reservoir characterization was further investigated using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). For this case, Butler/Reis theory and the GIF concept were combined with the EKF for history matching the heterogeneous reservoirs with uncertainty. Using synthetic data and stochastic reservoir realizations, it was shown how analytical models are helpful in reservoir characterization. While the analytical solution is placed at the centre of the optimization process, the second objective of this research was explored by applying the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to link monitoring data to the simulator(s). For this reason, an iterative geomechanical-flow coupling code was developed and assembled with the EnKF. Through numerical simulations using synthetically generated data, the significance of considering geomechanical monitoring data in reservoir surveillance was examined.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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