Download the full-sized PDF of Evaluating food environment assessment methodologies: a multi-level examination of associations between food environments and individual outcomesDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

Evaluating food environment assessment methodologies: a multi-level examination of associations between food environments and individual outcomes Open Access


Other title
built environment
food environment
diet quality
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Minaker, Leia M.
Supervisor and department
Raine, Kim (School of Public Health)
Examining committee member and department
Wild, T. Cameron (School of Public Health)
Farmer, Anna (School of Public Health)
Nykiforuk, Candace (School of Public Health)
Lytle, Leslie (School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill)
Raine, Kim (School of Public Health)
School of Public Health Sciences

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Background: The food environment (FE) is being increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of diet quality and weight status. Hundreds of FE measures exist, resulting in a lack of comparability between studies. This is problematic given that evaluating FEs’ impact on population health requires valid and reliable FE measures. Methods: A population-based, stratified random sample was recruited from southern Ontario (N=4902 individuals within 2228 households). Socio-demographic data, and self-reported weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were collected from participants. Diet quality was assessed in a subset of participants (n=1170 individuals within 690 households). Neighbourhood FE perceptions were gauged. Seven objective measures characterized the FE of 421 food stores and 912 restaurants in the study region. Euclidean-distance buffers around each household were created at 250m, 500m, 1000m, and 1500m; FE scores from each measure were aggregated within each buffer. Datasets were used to investigate three different research issues. Construct validity of four of the measures was examined using a multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM). Multilevel multiple regression analyses determined the extent to which perceptions and objective measures predicted individuals’ body mass index (BMI), WC and diet quality. Mediation analyses were conducted to determine whether residents’ perceptions explained associations between objective measures and outcomes. Results: MTMM results revealed that common FE measures purportedly assessing the same constructs may in fact be measuring different constructs. Perceptions were not highly correlated with objective FE measures. Objective measures (notably food access and food affordability measures) predicted BMI and WC while perceptual variables did not. Mediation analyses findings revealed that perceptions do not mediate associations between objective measures and diet quality, BMI, or WC. Conclusion: MTMM results suggest a method effect, in that what is actually being measured seems to differ by assessment method employed, which has implications for research and practice. Findings may support FE policies or programs focused on objective (rather than perceived) FE features, since objective features better predict weight outcomes and perceptions do not mediate these associations. Specifically, strategies to restrict convenience store access and improve the affordability of nutritious foods relative to non-nutritious foods seem to be supported by these findings.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 5471990
Last modified: 2015:10:12 15:19:39-06:00
Filename: Minaker_Leia_Spring 2013.pdf
Original checksum: da1e8e80bc5867ff5f8f00da84e53379
Well formed: true
Valid: true
Status message: Too many fonts to report; some fonts omitted. Total fonts = 1093
File author: Leia Minaker
Page count: 310
File language: en-CA
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date