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Journal Articles (Kinsella Ranch)

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  1. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identify QTL on SSC2 and SSC17 affecting loin peak shear force in crossbred commercial pigs [Download]

    Title: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identify QTL on SSC2 and SSC17 affecting loin peak shear force in crossbred commercial pigs
    Creator: Zhang, Chunyan
    Description: Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS) for peak shear force (PSF) of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb) and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb), were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2_5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2_109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2_109) and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2_109 and SSC17_20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness.
    Subjects: Meat, Genome-Wide Association Studies, Pork, Swine, Introns, Haplotypes, Genomic Databases, Muscle Proteins
    Date Created: 2016/02/22
  2. A genome-wide association study of fetal response to type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus challenge [Download]

    Title: A genome-wide association study of fetal response to type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus challenge
    Creator: Yang, Tianfu
    Description: Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is economically important for the swine industry worldwide. As current PRRS vaccines do not completely protect against heterologous challenge, alternative means of control, including enhanced genetic resilience, are needed. For reproductive PRRS, the genetic basis of fetal response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is poorly understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were done here using data from 928 fetuses from pregnant gilts experimentally challenged with type 2 PRRSV. Fetuses were assessed for viral load in thymus (VLT), viral load in endometrium (VLE), fetal death (FD) and fetal viability (FV), and genotyped at a medium density. Collectively, 21 candidate genomic regions were found associated with these traits, seven of which overlap with previously reported QTLs for pig health and reproduction. A comparison with ongoing and related transcriptomic analyses of fetal response to PRRSV infection found differentially expressed genes within 18 candidate regions. Some of these genes have immune system functions, and have been reported to contribute to host response to PRRSV infection. The results provide new evidence about the genetic basis of fetal response to PRRSV challenge, and may ultimately lead to alternative control strategies to reduce the impact of reproductive PRRS.
    Subjects: Genome-Wide Association Studies, Viral Infection
    Date Created: 2016/02/05
  3. Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of the lung of influenza-infected pigs: A comparison of different birth weight and Susceptibility groups [Download]

    Title: Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of the lung of influenza-infected pigs: A comparison of different birth weight and Susceptibility groups
    Creator: Wilkinson, Jamie M.
    Description: Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology.
    Subjects: Swine, Birth Weight, Influenza, DNA Methylation, Gene Expression, Immune Response, Cytokines, Microarrays
    Date Created: 2015/09/22
  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of rectal tissue from beef steers revealed reduced host immunity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedders [Download]

    Title: Comparative transcriptomic analysis of rectal tissue from beef steers revealed reduced host immunity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedders
    Creator: Wang, Ou
    Description: Super-shedder cattle are a major disseminator of E. coli O157:H7 into the environment, and the terminal rectum has been proposed as the primary E. coli O157:H7 colonization site. This study aimed to identify host factors that are associated with the super-shedding process by comparing transcriptomic profiles in rectal tissue collected from 5 super-shedder cattle and 4 non-shedder cattle using RNA-Seq. In total, 17,859 ± 354 genes and 399 ± 16 miRNAs were detected, and 11,773 genes were expressed in all animals. Fifty-eight differentially expressed (DE) genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) including 11 up-regulated and 47 down-regulated (log 2 (fold change) ranged from -5.5 to 4.2), and 2 up-regulated DE miRNAs (log 2 (fold change) = 2.1 and 2.5, respectively) were identified in super-shedders compared to non-shedders. Functional analysis of DE genes revealed that 31 down-regulated genes were potentially associated with reduced innate and adaptive immune functions in super-shedders, including 13 lymphocytes membrane receptors, 3 transcription factors and 5 cytokines, suggesting the decreased key host immune functions in the rectal tissue of super-shedders, including decreased quantity and migration of immune cells such as lymphocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells. The up-regulation of bta-miR-29d-3p and the down regulation of its predicted target gene, regulator of G-protein signaling 13, suggested a potential regulatory role of this miRNA in decreased migration of lymphocytes in super-shedders. Based on these findings, the rectal tissue of super-shedders may inherently exhibit less effective innate and adaptive immune protection. Further study is required to confirm if such effect on host immunity is due to the nature of the host itself or due to actions mediated by E. coli O157:H7.
    Subjects: Gene Expression, Cattle, T Cells, B Cells, Transcriptome Analysis, MicroRNAs, Lymphocytes, RNA Sequencing
    Date Created: 2016/03/09
  5. A large and diverse collection of bovine genome sequences from the Canadian Cattle Genome Project [Download]

    Title: A large and diverse collection of bovine genome sequences from the Canadian Cattle Genome Project
    Creator: Stothard, Paul
    Description: Background The Canadian Cattle Genome Project is a large-scale international project that aims to develop genomics-based tools to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of beef and dairy production. Obtaining DNA sequence information is an important part of achieving this goal as it facilitates efforts to associate specific DNA differences with phenotypic variation. These associations can be used to guide breeding decisions and provide valuable insight into the molecular basis of traits. Findings We describe a dataset of 379 whole-genome sequences, taken primarily from key historic Bos taurus animals, along with the analyses that were performed to assess data quality. The sequenced animals represent ten populations relevant to beef or dairy production. Animal information (name, breed, population), sequence data metrics (mapping rate, depth, concordance), and sequence repository identifiers (NCBI BioProject and BioSample IDs) are provided to enable others to access and exploit this sequence information. Conclusions The large number of whole-genome sequences generated as a result of this project will contribute to ongoing work aiming to catalogue the variation that exists in cattle as well as efforts to improve traits through genotype-guided selection. Studies of gene function, population structure, and sequence evolution are also likely to benefit from the availability of this resource.
    Subjects: Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bos taurus, Beef, Dairy
    Date Created: 2015/10/26
  6. Bioinformatic analyses in early host response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus PRRSV reveals pathway differences between pigs with alternate genotypes for a major host response QTL [Download]

    Title: Bioinformatic analyses in early host response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus PRRSV reveals pathway differences between pigs with alternate genotypes for a major host response QTL
    Creator: Schroyen, Martine
    Description: Background A region on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) surrounding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker WUR10000125 (WUR) has been reported to be strongly associated with both weight gain and serum viremia in pigs after infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV). A proposed causal mutation in the guanylate binding protein 5 gene (GBP5) is predicted to truncate the encoded protein. To investigate transcriptional differences between WUR genotypes in early host response to PRRSV infection, an RNA-seq experiment was performed on globin depleted whole blood RNA collected on 0, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days post-infection (dpi) from eight littermate pairs with one AB (favorable) and one AA (unfavorable) WUR genotype animal per litter. Results Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of transcripts that were differentially expressed (DE) between dpi across both genotypes revealed an inflammatory response for all dpi when compared to day 0. However, at the early time points of 4 and 7dpi, several GO terms had higher enrichment scores compared to later dpi, including inflammatory response (p 
    Subjects: Pig, PRRS Virus, RNA-Seq, WUR, GBP5, Ion Transport, Homeostasis, Regulatory Factors
    Date Created: 2016/03/08
  7. Use of genomic tools to improve cattle health in the context of infectious diseases [Download]

    Title: Use of genomic tools to improve cattle health in the context of infectious diseases
    Creator: Raszek, Mikolaj M.
    Description: Although infectious diseases impose a heavy economic burden on the cattle industry, the etiology of many disorders that affect livestock is not fully elucidated, and effective countermeasures are often lacking. The main tools available until now have been vaccines, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs. Although these have been very successful in some cases, the appearance of parasite and microbial resistance to these treatments is a cause of concern. Next-generation sequencing provides important opportunities to tackle problems associated with pathogenic illnesses. This review describes the rapid gains achieved to track disease progression, identify the pathogens involved, and map pathogen interactions with the host. Use of novel genomic tools subsequently aids in treatment development, as well as successful creation of breeding programs aimed toward less susceptible livestock. These may be important tools for mitigating the long term effects of combating infection and helping reduce the reliance on antibiotic treatment.
    Subjects: Next-Generation Sequencing, Cattle Infection, Pathogen Genome, Robustness, Bovine Microbiome, Bovine Virome, Bovine Respiratory Disease, Breeding Programs
    Date Created: 2016/03/07
  8. Maternal and fetal predictors of fetal viral load and death in third trimester, type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected pregnant gilts [Download]

    Title: Maternal and fetal predictors of fetal viral load and death in third trimester, type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected pregnant gilts
    Creator: Ladinig, Andrea
    Description: Minimal research has focused on understanding mechanisms underlying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induced reproductive failure. We have completed a large-scale project investigating phenotypic and genotypic predictors of reproductive PRRS severity in which numerous clinical, pathological, immunologic and viral responses were characterized in dams and fetuses. The goal was to determine which phenotypic responses were associated with fetal viral load and death after experimental infection of pregnant gilts with type 2 PRRSV, thereby elucidating mechanisms of reproductive PRRS in third trimester pregnant gilts. The presence of fetal infection and increasing RNA concentration at the maternal-fetal interface were strong predictors of the probability of fetal death, while PRRSV RNA concentration in dam sera and systemic tissues were not associated with the odds of fetal death. Fetal infection and death clustered, indicating that the status of adjacent fetuses is crucial for lateral transmission and fetal outcome. Several systemic immune responses of gilts were associated with fetal outcome and viral load: interferon-α contributed to the probability of fetal death, but absolute numbers of T helper cells in early infection, absolute numbers of myeloid cells over time and interleukin 12 levels appeared protective. These results suggest specific immune responses may either contribute to, or protect against, transplacental virus transmission. The WUR10000125 SNP on chromosome 4, associated with PRRS resilience in nursery pigs, was not associated with reproductive outcome. Whereas past research suggested that fetal death results from events occurring at the maternal-fetal interface, we conclude that viral replication within fetuses and spread of PRRSV to adjacent fetuses are pivotal events in the pathogenesis of reproductive PRRS.
    Subjects: Host Response, Transplacental Infection, Prenatal Undernutrition, Microscopic Lesions, Implantation Sites, Antibody-Response, Fetuses, PRRSV, Gestation, Sows
    Date Created: 2015/09/25
  9. Genome-wide whole blood microRNAome and transcriptome analyses revealed miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to foodborne pathogen Salmonella infection in swine [Download]

    Title: Genome-wide whole blood microRNAome and transcriptome analyses revealed miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to foodborne pathogen Salmonella infection in swine
    Creator: Bao, Hua
    Description: To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in host response to bacterial infection and shedding of foodborne pathogens, a systematic profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs from the whole blood of pigs upon Salmonella challenge was performed. A total of 62 miRNAs were differentially expressed post infection (false discovery rate <0.1). An integrative analysis of both the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs using sequence-based miRNA target prediction and negative correlation of miRNA-mRNA profiles helped identify miRNA-mRNA networks that may potentially regulate host response to Salmonella infection. From these networks, miR-214 and miR-331-3p were identified as new candidates potentially associated with Salmonella infection. An miRNA seed sequence analysis suggested that these miRNAs regulate several critical immune-related genes including SLC11A1, PIGE-108A11.3 and VAV2. We showed that challenged pigs had reduced miR-214 expression and increased miR-331-3p expression in the whole blood. Furthermore, the expression of the proposed targets of miR-214 (SLC11A1 and PIGE-108A11.3) increased while that of the proposed target of miR-331-3p (VAV2) decreased following challenge (expression changes confirmed by in vitro assays). Based on these observations, we propose potential roles for miR-214 and miR-331-3p in regulation of immune responses to Salmonella infection.
    Subjects: Regulatory Networks, Systems Biology
    Date Created: 2015/07/31
  10. Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants [Download]

    Title: Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants
    Creator: Mapiye, C.
    Description: Background: The current study evaluated the subcutaneous fatty acid (FA) composition of calf- and yearling-fed steers with or without growth promoting implants. Crossbred steers (n = 112; 267 ± 5.0 kg) of the same contemporary group were allocated to one of four production system and implant strategy based treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Results: There were no interactions (P > 0.05) between production systems and growth promoting implants for the total and individual subcutaneous FA. Yearling as opposed to calf finishing reduced (P < 0.05) subcutaneous proportions of C20:3n-6, trans (t)12-18:1, C14:0, several minor cis-monounsaturated FA (c-MUFA; c9-14:1, c11-16:1, c11-18:1, c12-18:1, c13-18:1, c9-20:1 and c11-20:1), and increased (P < 0 .05) subcutaneous proportions of t11c15-18:2, total and individual branched-chain FA. Subcutaneous fat from steers implanted with growth promotants had higher (P < 0.05) proportions of total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), total n-6 PUFA, C18:2n-6 and individual t-18:1 isomers (t6 to t10) compared to non-implanted steers. Conclusions: Overall, current findings show that production systems and growth promotants led to only minor differences in subcutaneous FA composition of beef steers
    Subjects: Age at feedlot entry, Beef, Fatty acids, Growth implant, Steers
    Date Created: 2013