ERA

View Communities

Department of Pediatrics

The Department of Pediatrics at the University of Alberta is dedicated to the advancement of child health through the delivery of exemplary patient care, teaching, and research. The department contributes to and advocates for the child health community through a network of pediatric physicians, scientists, educators, nurses and allied health professionals. With a cohort of over 130 academic staff, across 20 clinical specializations, the department fosters a strong environment of multi-disciplinary collaboration and teamwork. Critical ties to community, provincial, national and international colleagues further promote and expand the department's boundaries in innovation and discovery.
Number of results to display per page
Collections and items in this Community
  1. A Spatial Scan Statistic for Compound Poisson Data, Using Negative Binomial Distribution and Accounting for Population Stratification [Download]

    Title: A Spatial Scan Statistic for Compound Poisson Data, Using Negative Binomial Distribution and Accounting for Population Stratification
    Creator: Chang, Hsing-Ming
    Description: Since the interest in studying spatial relations in plant populations was raised in the 1950s, much effort has been devoted to the development of methods for spatial data analysis. One such development focused on techniques for detecting spatial clusters of cases and events in the biological sciences and epidemiology during the late 1980s and the following decade. More recently, research has examined detecting clusters of correlated count data associated with health conditions of individuals. Such a method allows researchers to examine spatial relationships of disease-related events rather than just incidents or prevalent cases. We introduce a spatial scan test that identifies clusters of events in a study region. Because an individual case may have multiple (repeated) events, we base the test on a special compound Poisson model. Based on this special class (a compound Poisson representation of the negative binomial distribution), advantages in computation over the general compound Poisson model that relies on a recursive formula are realized. We illustrate our method for cluster detection on emergency department visits, where individuals may make multiple asthma-related visits. We also demonstrate the spatial scan test adjusted by key population characteristics such as sex or age.
    Subjects: spatial scan, stratification, compound Poisson, surveillance, negative binomial, cluster detection
  2. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Childhood Cancer Trends [Download]

    Title: Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Childhood Cancer Trends
    Creator: Torabi, Mahmoud
    Description: In this paper, generalized additive mixed models are constructed for the analysis of geographical and temporal variability of cancer ratios. In this class of models, spatially correlated random effects and temporal components are adopted. Spatio-temporal models that use intrinsic conditionally autoregressive smoothing across the spatial dimension and B-spline smoothing over the temporal dimension are considered. We study the patterns of incidence ratios over time and identify areas with consistently high ratio estimates as areas for further investigation. A hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques is employed for the analysis of the childhood cancer diagnoses in the province of Alberta, Canada during 1995-2004. We also evaluate the sensitivity of such analyses to prior assumptions in the Poisson context.
    Subjects: spatio-temporal models, hierarchical Bayesian, childhood cancer
  3. Acyclovir for treating varicella in otherwise healthy children and adolescents [Download]

    Title: Acyclovir for treating varicella in otherwise healthy children and adolescents
    Creator: Klassen TP
    Subjects: Chickenpox, Antiviral Agents, Acyclovir, Adolescent, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Date Created: 2005
  4. Emergency Medicine

    Title: Emergency Medicine
    Creator: ERA Administrator
    Description: Pediatricians from the Department of Pediatrics and Alberta Health Services has collaborated and have helped create the only sub-specialized Pediatric Emergency Department, which engages in knowledge exchange and training with healthcare professionals across Alberta.
    Subjects:
  5. Environmental Health

    Title: Environmental Health
    Creator: ERA Administrator
    Subjects:
  6. Sulfasalazine for treating rheumatoid arthritis [Download]

    Title: Sulfasalazine for treating rheumatoid arthritis
    Creator: Suarez-Almazor ME
    Subjects: Sulfasalazine, Non-Steroidal, Antirheumatic Agents, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Date Created: 1998
  7. Spatio-temporal modelling using B-spline for disease mapping: analysis of childhood cancer trends [Download]

    Title: Spatio-temporal modelling using B-spline for disease mapping: analysis of childhood cancer trends
    Creator: Torabi, Mahmoud
    Description: To analyze childhood cancer diagnoses in the province of Alberta, Canada during 1983-2004, we construct a generalized linear mixed model for the analysis of geographic and temporal variability of cancer rates. In this model, spatially correlated random e®ects and temporal components are adopted. The interaction between space and time is also accommodated. Spatio-temporal models that use conditional autoregressive smoothing across the spatial di- mension and B-spline over the temporal dimension are considered. We study the patterns of incidence rates over time and identify areas with consistently high rate estimates as areas for further investigation. We apply the method of penalized quasi-likelihood to estimate the model parameters. We illustrate this approach using a yearly data set of childhood cancer diagnoses in the province of Alberta, Canada during 1983-2004.
    Subjects: geographic epidemiology, conditional autoregressive, penalized quasi-likelihood, disease mapping, generalized linear mixed model
    Date Created: 2011
  8. General Pediatrics

    Title: General Pediatrics
    Creator: ERA Administrator
    Subjects:
  9. Spatio-temporal modelling of disease mapping of rates [Download]

    Title: Spatio-temporal modelling of disease mapping of rates
    Creator: Torabi, Mahmoud
    Description: This paper studies generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for the analysis of geographic and temporal variability of disease rates. This class of models adopts spatially correlated random effects and random temporal components. Spatio-temporal models that use conditional autoregressive smoothing across the spatial dimension and autoregressive smoothing over the temporal dimension are developed. The model also accommodates the interaction between space and time. However, the effect of seasonal factors has not been previously addressed and in some applications (e.g., health conditions), these effects may not be negligible. The authors incorporate the seasonal effects of month and possibly year as part of the proposed model and estimate model parameters through generalized estimating equations. The model provides smoothed maps of disease risk and eliminates the instability of estimates in low-population areas while maintaining geographic resolution. They illustrate the approach using a monthly data set of the number of asthma presentations made by children to Emergency Departments (EDs) in the province of Alberta, Canada, during the period 2001–2004.
    Subjects: generalized estimating equation, random effects model, generalized linear mixed model, geographic epidemiology, seasonal effect, conditional autoregressive
    Date Created: 2010
  10. An examination of five spatial disease clustering methodologies for the identification of childhood cancer clusters in Alberta, Canada [Download]

    Title: An examination of five spatial disease clustering methodologies for the identification of childhood cancer clusters in Alberta, Canada
    Creator: Torabi, Mahmoud
    Description: Cluster detection is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it may help suggest potential factors associated with disease and thus, guide further investigation of the nature of diseases. Many different methods have been proposed to test for disease clusters. In this paper, we study five popular methods for detecting spatial clusters. These methods are Besag- Newell (BN), circular spatial scan statistic (CSS), flexible spatial scan statistic (FSS), Tango’s maximized excess events test (MEET), and Bayesian disease mapping (BYM). We study these five different methods by analyzing a data set of malignant cancer diagnoses in children in the province of Alberta, Canada during 1983-2004. Our results show that the potential clusters are located in the south-central part of the province. Although, all methods performed very well to detect clusters, the BN and MEET methods identified local as well as general clusters.
    Subjects: Bayesian statistic, cancer cases, geographic epidemiology, spatial cluster detection
    Date Created: 2011