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- 3Visitation effects
- 2Apocynum cannabinum
- 1Cirsium arvense
Light, wind, and touch influence leaf chemistry and rates of herbivory in Apocynum cannabinum (Apocynaceae)Download
Simply visiting and manipulating plants in a way consistent with measurement in typical ecological studies influences the amount of leaf herbivory experienced by some plant species. We examined the mechanistic basis for why Apocynum cannabinum is particularly responsive to such visitation and...
Separate effects of human visitation and touch on plant growth and herbivory in an old-field communityDownload
Although animal scientists have long been aware that methods used to measure an experimental system can affect the subject of measurement, similar confounding effects of commonly used field methods have only recently been acknowledged by plant ecologists. Here we demonstrate significant effects...
In 1927, Werner Heisenberg proposed that there are fundamental limitations to the study of subatomic particles, as the act of measuring them affects their behavior. Here we show that experimenter-induced uncertainty also applies in plant ecology, with potentially dramatic consequences for field...