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The forage maturation hypothesis (FMH) proposes that ungulate migration is driven by selection for high forage quality. Because quality declines with plant maturation, but intake declines at low biomass, ungulates are predicted to select for intermediate forage biomass to maximize energy intake...
State-space models link elk movement patterns to landscape characteristics in Yellowstone National ParkDownload
Explaining and predicting animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes remains challenging. This is in part because movement paths often include a series of short, localized displacements separated by longer-distance forays. This multiphasic movement behavior reflects the complex response of an...
Trade-offs between predation risk and forage differ between migrant strategies in a migratory ungulateDownload
Trade-offs between predation risk and forage fundamentally drive resource selection by animals. Among migratory ungulates, trade-offs can occur at large spatial scales through migration, which allows an \"escape'' from predation, but trade-offs can also occur at finer spatial scales. Previous...
Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995–1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We...
A trophic cascade recently has been reported among wolves, elk, and aspen on the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, but the mechanisms of indirect interactions within this food chain have yet to be established. We investigated whether the observed trophic cascade...