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  • Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m
  • Gagnon, Katherine M
  • English
  • Cyclotron
    Cyclotron production of technetium
    Isotope shortage
    Medical isotopes
  • Jan 10, 2012 2:42 PM
  • Thesis
  • English
  • Adobe PDF
  • 3742345 bytes
  • Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n)99gTc excitation function in the range of 8–18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18 to 10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron-produced 99mTc has been extensively compared with relevant United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications for the existing 99Mo/99mTc production strategy. Additional quality testing, including biodistribution studies of [99mTc]pertechnetate and [99mTc]disofenin in both mice and rabbits was also evaluated. Using the strategies and results presented throughout this dissertation, this thesis concludes with the world’s first cyclotron-based 99mTc patient images obtained as part of a Phase I Clinical Trial at the University of Alberta using [99mTc]pertechnetate.
  • Chapter 2 A version of this chapter was published as a section in: K. Gagnon, S. McQuarrie, D. Abrams, A. J. B. McEwan and F. Wuest, Radiotracers based on technetium-94m, Current Radiopharmaceuticals, 4 (2011) 90–101.
    Chapter 3 A version of this chapter was published in: K. Gagnon, F. Bénard, M. Kovacs, T.J. Ruth, P. Schaffer, J.S. Wilson and S.A. McQuarrie, Cyclotron production of 99mTc: Experimental measurement of the 100Mo(p,x)99Mo, 99mTc, and 99gTc excitation functions from 8 to 18 MeV, Nucl. Med. Biol. 38 (2011) 907–916.
    Chapter 4 A version of this chapter was published in: K. Gagnon, M. Jensen, H. Thisgaard, J. Publicover, S. Lapi, S.A. McQuarrie, and T.J. Ruth, A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 69 (2011) 247–253.
    Chapter 5 A version of this chapter was submitted for review in: K. Gagnon, J. S. Wilson, C. Holt, D. Abrams, A. J. B. McEwan, D. Mitlin, and S.A. McQuarrie, Cyclotron production of 99mTc: Recycling of enriched 100Mo metal targets, submitted to Applied Radiation and Isotopes (August, 2011).
    Chapter 6 A version of this chapter was presented at the 19th International Symposium of Radiopharmaceuticals Sciences, Amsterdam, Aug 28th–Sept 2nd, 2011: K. Gagnon, C. Holt, J.S. Wilson, D. Mitlin, S. McQuarrie, Target preparation and recycling of molybdenum for the cyclotron production of 99mTc, J. Label. Compd. Radiopharm. 54 (2011) S54.
    Chapter 7 A version of this chapter was presented at the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham, UK, October 15–19, 2011. K. Gagnon, D. Abrams, J.S. Wilson, S.A. McQuarrie, A.J.B. McEwan, Quality control of cyclotron vs. generator 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 38 (2011), S105.
  • Doctoral
  • Doctor of Philosophy
  • Department of Physics
  • Medical Physics
  • Spring 2012
  • Robinson, D. (Oncology, Physics)
    McQuarrie, S.A. (Oncology)
  • Krauss, C. (Physics)
    Wilson, J. (Oncology)
    Mercer, J. (Oncology)
    Jans, H. (Oncology)
    Lewis, J. (Radiology)

May 2, 2014 11:36 AM


Jan 10, 2012 2:42 PM


Kim Punko