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  • http://hdl.handle.net/10048/1256
  • Working (in) the gap: a critical examination of the race/culture divide in human services
  • Wolfe, Ruth Rebecca
  • en
  • race/culture divide
    human services
    racism
    cultural competence
    anti-racism
    minoritized immigrants
    inequities
    Canada
    critical qualitative inquiry
    extended case method
  • Aug 9, 2010 9:57 PM
  • Thesis
  • en
  • Adobe PDF
  • 2847245 bytes
  • This project entails a critical examination of the race/culture divide in human services from the vantage point of middle women – non-professional grassroots advocates who emerged in the 1990s to address inequities that minoritized immigrants experience with main stream human services in Canada. The race/culture divide denotes critical race theorists' critique of a focus on cultural difference that obscures racism. Shaped by critical race theory and critical research methods, and drawing on interviews and participant observation involving 25 middle women, my findings reveal that the middle women's articulations of barriers and gaps as systemic inequities are at odds with main stream services' tendencies to focus on cultural challenges. This tension results in the discursive production of a cultural niche, a gendered space of exploitation of a culturally defined Middle Woman, who is thus rendered perpetually immigrant. The study illuminates how the Middle Woman navigates a complex and perilous tension between jeopardizing relationships with main stream organizations and simultaneously resisting what she experiences as disrespectful, unacceptable, unethical and overtly racist interfaces with human services. Although the middle women recounted numerous, visceral and detailed culturalist-racist interfaces in systemically racialized human service systems, they were equivocal about naming racism until I raised it directly. They gave meaning to "in Canada" experiences through their particular pre-migration realities in a process of continuous comparison between "back home" and "here," positioning them differentially in relation to Canada, and therefore also to the possibility of naming racism in Canada. The middle women engage in a continuous process of discerning racism, always weighing it against other explanations for inequitable treatment. The project thus draws attention to the toll that navigating the race/culture divide takes in embodying the sensed and draining the spirit. It draws attention to the process through which I, as a white researcher, came to see the workings of our racialized society. My research contributes to the literature on the race/culture divide and whiteness studies, and has implications for research on racism, dialogue about cultural competence and anti-racist practice, and conceptualizing settlement and responsive human services.
  • Doctoral
  • Doctor of Philosophy
  • Department of Human Ecology
  • Fall 2010
  • Williamson, Deanna (Human Ecology)
  • Dorow, Sara (Sociology)
    Kelly, Jennifer (Educational Policy Studies)
    Mayan, Maria (Extension)
    Abu-Laban, Yasmeen (Political Science)
    Etowa, Josephine (Nursing)

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