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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R3B05V

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Simultaneous measurement of protein and energy metabolism and application to determine lysine requirements in sows Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
calorimetry
requirements
gestation
lysine
lactation
amino acid
protein
sows
energy
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Samuel, Ryan
Supervisor and department
Moehn, Soenke (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Ball, Ronald O. (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Lindemann, Merlin (Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky)
DeLorey, Darren (Department of Physical Education & Recreation)
Oba, Masahito (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Ziljstra, Ruurd (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Pencharz, Paul B. (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science Adjunct Professor; The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto)
Department
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science
Specialization

Date accepted
2010-11-24T21:00:17Z
Graduation date
2011-06
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
Simultaneous measurements of energy and protein metabolism can provide valuable information about their interactions. Dietary lysine is limiting in typical feedstuffs fed to swine and, therefore, limits protein synthesis. Current recommendations for dietary amino acid and energy intakes may not be reflective of the requirements for modern, highly productive sows and, therefore, invalidate requirement estimates determined according to the factorial approach. Current feeding recommendations suggest a constant amino acid intake throughout gestation. However, the demands for amino acids changes from maternal tissue accretion in early-gestation to fetal, conceptus, and mammary tissue development in late-gestation. This thesis reports the method development associated with simultaneous measurements of energy and protein metabolism and its application to determine dietary lysine requirements in non-pregnant and pregnant sows using the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Two indirect calorimetry systems and an experimental feeding regimen were tested and validated for use in studies of amino acid requirements by stable isotope dilution. Protein and energy balance studies were performed in non-pregnant sows fed two distinct levels of energy and protein intake. The systems reacted appropriately to changes in gas concentrations induced by sow respiration. Protein and energy balance studies were also performed in pregnant and lactating sows fed typical diets. Sows appeared more anabolic during mid-gestation and were catabolic by late-gestation and through lactation, where additional energy intake provided by ad libitum feed intake increased milk energy output. The dietary lysine requirement in non-pregnant sows at maintenance was determined as 49 mg/kg0.75, 30% greater than current recommendations. The dietary lysine requirement was determined to be 10.1 g/d and 16.5 g/d, in early- and late-gestation, respectively. These results suggest that a constant diet formulation for the entirety of gestation is not appropriate. In conclusion, simultaneous measurements of energy and protein metabolism combining indirect calorimetry and stable isotope techniques may be used to define requirements for dietary amino acids in sows. Basic assumptions of the factorial approach to estimate requirements require further investigation, including the dietary lysine requirement. Application of phase feeding for sows during gestation can more correctly meet the demands for amino acids and energy, improving sow longevity.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R3B05V
Rights
License granted by Ryan Samuel (rsamuel@ualberta.ca) on 2010-11-17T18:27:24Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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File title: PhD thesis
File author: Ryan S Samuel
Page count: 289
File language: en-US
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