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Lipase-catalyzed interesterification between canola oil and fully-hydrogenated canola oil in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide Open Access


Other title
Canola oil
Fully-hydrogenated canola oil
Supercritical carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide-expanded lipid
Enzymatic interesterification
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Jenab, Ehsan
Supervisor and department
Temelli, Feral (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Weselake, Randall (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Charpentier, Paul (Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario)
Unsworth, Larry D (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Temelli, Feral (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Curtis, Jonathan (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Bioresource and Food Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Despite the policies targeting reduction of partially hydrogenated fats because of concerns over trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been shown to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, partial hydrogenation is still employed in the margarine industry. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification is an alternative method to eliminate TFA formation in hardened fats. However, conventional techniques suffer from long reaction times or use of organic solvents. The objective of this thesis was to develop lipase-catalyzed interesterification between canola oil and fully-hydrogenated canola oil (FHCO) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). Fundamental physical properties such as viscosity, density and volumetric expansion of canola oil and its blend with FHCO were determined at different temperatures and pressures. When equilibrated with SCCO2 at pressures of up to 10 MPa, the viscosity of canola oil and its blend decreased by 80-90% of that at atmospheric pressure. As well, the density at elevated pressures increased by 3.5-5%, while volumetric expansion increased by 40-46%. The performance and reusability of Lipozyme TL IM and RM IM for interesterification between canola oil and FHCO under SCCO2 were investigated. Both enzymes showed similar performance. Exposure time of up to 12 h and pressurization/depressurization steps of up to 12 times under SCCO2 did not affect the activity or the structure of the enzymes significantly. Both enzymes showed good reusability for several times for interesterification without any significant change in degree of interesterification. Pressurization/depressurization reduced the moisture content of the enzymes and consequently the formation of reaction intermediates during the reaction. Optimal reaction conditions to obtain the maximum conversion rate were 65 °C/10 MPa/2 h/6% (w/v) Lipozyme TL IM of substrates. The triglyceride (TG) composition, thermal behaviour, solid fat content, polymorphism and microstructural and rheological properties of initial blends were modified considerably due to the formation of new mixed TG during interesterification. The fundamental data and optimized reaction conditions obtained in this research are essential for process and equipment design. As well, the physicochemical characterization of final products will aid in the formulation of more healthy products and address a critical industrial demand in terms of formulation options for margarines and similar products.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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