Download the full-sized PDF of Exploring Surgeons' Perceptions of the Role of Simulation in Surgical Education: A Needs AssessmentDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Surgery, Department of


This file is in the following collections:

General Surgery

Exploring Surgeons' Perceptions of the Role of Simulation in Surgical Education: A Needs Assessment Open Access


Author or creator
Clark, M.
White, J.
King, S.
Carbonaro, M.
Additional contributors
surgical education
needs assessment
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
Background: The last two decades have seen the adoption of simulation-based surgical education in various disciplines. The current study’s goal was to perform a needs assessment using the results to inform future curricular planning and needs of surgeons and learners. Methods: A survey was distributed to 26 surgeon educators and interviews were conducted with 8 of these surgeons. Analysis of survey results included reliability and descriptive statistics. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content with a constant comparison technique, developing coding and categorization of themes. Results: The survey response rate was 81%. The inter-item reliability, according to Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 with strongest agreement for statements related to learning new skills, training new residents and the positive impact on patient safety and learning. There was less strong agreement for maintenance of skills, improving team functioning and reducing teaching in the operating room. Interview results confirmed those themes from the survey and highlighted inconsistencies for identified perceived barriers and a focus on acquisition of skills only. Interview responses specified concerns with integrating simulation into existing curricula and the need for more evaluation as a robust educational strategy. Conclusion: The findings were summarized in four themes: 1) use of simulation, 2) integration into curriculum, 3) leadership, and 4) understanding gaps in simulation use. This study exemplifies a mixed-methods approach to planning a surgical simulation program through a general needs assessment.
Date created
License information
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported

Citation for previous publication
CLARK, M., WHITE, J., KING, S., CARBONARO, M.. (2011). Exploring Surgeons' Perceptions of the Role of Simulation in Surgical Education: A Needs Assessment. Canadian Medical Education Journal, 2(2): e44-e52.

Link to related item

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 321717
Last modified: 2015:10:12 20:23:20-06:00
Filename: Marcia Clark 2011.pdf
Original checksum: eef4b436f4c625bd9183ca008974e413
Well formed: false
Valid: false
Status message: Unexpected error in findFonts java.lang.ClassCastException: edu.harvard.hul.ois.jhove.module.pdf.PdfSimpleObject cannot be cast to edu.harvard.hul.ois.jhove.module.pdf.PdfDictionary offset=2974
Status message: Invalid Annotation property offset=2974
Status message: Invalid outline dictionary item offset=312668
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date