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A 1H-MRS and Neurocognitive Analysis of Psychotic Symptoms in Stimulant Dependence Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
psychosis
spectroscopy
methamphetamine
schizophrenia
stimulants
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Lakusta, Bonnie J
Supervisor and department
Tibbo, Phil (Psychiatry)
Examining committee member and department
Purdon, Scot (Psychiatry)
Wild, Cam (Public Health)
Baker, Glen (Psychiatry)
Lepage, Martin (Psychiatry)
Tibbo, Phil (Psychiatry)
Department
Department of Psychiatry
Specialization

Date accepted
2011-12-22T10:42:31Z
Graduation date
2012-06
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
The association between stimulant drug use and the presence of a psychotic disorder raises questions about causation. Substance-induced psychosis may differ etiologically from schizophrenia despite similar phenotypic presentation. It is possible that stimulant drug users who develop symptoms of psychosis have a pre-existing vulnerability to schizophrenia. A recent theory building on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that a second insult in conjunction with a pre-existing vulnerability may be necessary to trigger the onset of psychosis. Stimulant dependence may be one of these exogenous triggers for psychosis. This study investigated the possibility that stimulant dependence can trigger psychosis biologically by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cognitively by using a battery of cognitive assessments. It was hypothesized the stimulant drug users who develop psychotic symptoms have a pre-existing vulnerability to psychosis that manifests when the substance use triggers abnormal neuropathological development. Evidence of this pathology should be found biologically in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and choline, and cognitively in measures of processing speed and executive functioning. Abstinent stimulant-dependent users were recruited from the community and compared to a healthy control group and a group of non-substance-induced first episode psychosis patients. Results of this study provide support for the association between methamphetamine use and psychosis. The stimulant-dependent group had worse performance on measures of executive function and processing speed compared to healthy controls, but only processing speed was related to the presence of psychotic symptoms, providing support for processing speed as a potential endophenotype for psychosis. The stimulant-dependent group also had abnormal neurochemical profiles as measured by N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. Finally, in comparison between stimulant-dependent users with symptoms of psychosis and a de novo schizophrenia, the factors predicting severity of psychotic symptoms differed substantially between groups. These results suggest that the cognitive and biological correlates of a substance-induced psychosis differ from a non-substance-induced psychosis, suggesting that a vulnerability to substance-induced psychosis may differ from the neurodevelopomental pathology associated with schizophrenia.
Language
English
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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File title: Introduction
Page count: 250
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