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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R32N4ZP60

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Sustainable management of dipterocarp forests in the Philippines Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
Resource accumulation
Fruiting
Southeast Asia
Tropical phenology
El Nino
Climate cues of flowering
Community based forest management
Flowering
Dipterocarps
Dipterocarpaceae
Native tree species
Forest Dependent Communities
Sustainable forest management
Reforestation
Tropical forestry
Philippine forests
Forest conservation
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Chechina, Mariya
Supervisor and department
Hamann, Andreas (Renewable Resources)
Examining committee member and department
Nielsen, Scott (Renewable Resources)
Hacke, Uwe (Renewable Resources)
Walters, Bradley B. (Geography and Environment, Mount Allison University)
Parkins, John (Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology)
David Olefeldt (Renewable Resources)
Davidson, Debra (Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology)
Department
Department of Renewable Resources
Specialization
Forest Biology and Management
Date accepted
2015-09-24T14:13:09Z
Graduation date
2015-11
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests are highly diverse tropical forest communities, with the family Dipterocarpaceae alone comprising hundreds of species. Dipterocarps are remarkable in that they exhibit supra-annual mass flowering events, which occur in irregular intervals of two to ten years, normally involving several dipterocarp species and sometimes including many other plant families as well, a phenomenon known as general flowering event. Dipterocarps are a leading species group on 85% of Southeast Asia’s forested land base and they are also commercially important, representing a quarter of global consumption of tropical timbers. Southeast Asia’s dipterocarp forests are also one of the most threatened tropical ecosystems in the world. Only 16% of the total original forested area remains classified as primary forest in Southeast Asia and less than 6% in the Philippines, which is a focus of this thesis. The overall objective of this thesis is to support and improve reforestation and community forestry initiatives in dipterocarp forests by contributing ecological insight and compiling local community knowledge, and by addressing major impediments to successful forest restoration in Southeast Asia. The first issue is the biology of dipterocarp reproduction that makes it hard to manage natural regeneration as well as reforestation. It is logistically difficult to mobilize resources to collect short lived dipterocarp seed without knowing in advance when flowering will occur. This thesis research investigates what environmental factors drive dipterocarp mass flowering and tests alternative resource accumulation and trigger models to predict mass flowering. Using a variety of candidate predictor variables (precipitation, cloud cover, minimum temperature and El Niño indices) a plausible environmental trigger could not be found (median AUCs around 0.55 indicating near random predictions), while the best resource accumulation model had a median AUC of 0.70, which could be improved to 0.75 when the date of previous flowering was included in the model. Further, the analysis revealed that a simple resource accumulation by individual trees can cause inter- and intraspecific flowering synchronization leading to community-wide general flowering events. The second issue is a lack of knowledge of which dipterocarps and which other native species are suitable for reforestation. Community based forest management programs typically use readily available exotic species that may not be desired by the local communities. Choosing species for reforestation programs or community forestry in species-rich tropical rainforest ecosystems is a complex task. Reforestation objectives, social preferences, and ecological attributes must be balanced to achieve landscape restoration, timber production, or community forestry objectives. In a case study for an upland tropical rainforest in the Philippines, socioeconomic preference in five forest-dependent communities were surveyed. In addition, ecological suitability of tree species for open-field plantations was inferred from growth rates, density and frequency of native tree species in long-term monitoring plots. Notably, ecological suitability indicators and socioeconomic preference ranks were generally negatively correlated, with few species being classified as both ecologically suitable and socioeconomically valuable. The results also highlight that reforestation species must be carefully chosen, and that species-rich tropical rainforests are not an easily renewable natural resource. Secondary and planted forests do not serve socioeconomic needs of forest-dependent communities as do original native forests
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R32N4ZP60
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Chechina, M. and A. Hamann. 2015. Choosing species for reforestation in diverse forest communities: social preference versus ecological suitability. Ecosphere (in press)

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