Download the full-sized PDF of Development of a General Measure of Physical Self-Concept of MuscularityDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

Development of a General Measure of Physical Self-Concept of Muscularity Open Access


Other title
physical self-concept
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Loitz, Christina C
Supervisor and department
Rodgers, Wendy (Physical Education and Recreation)
Examining committee member and department
Wild, Cameron (Public Health)
Dunn, John (Physical Education and Recreation)
Crocker, Peter (Kinesiology)
Rodgers, Wendy (Physical Education and Recreation)
Berry, Tanya (Physical Education and Recreation)
Physical Education and Recreation

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The purposes of this dissertation were to (a) develop an instrument that assess the physical self-concept of muscularity among young adults, (b) produce content validity, internal structural validity and external criterion-related validity evidence to support the new instrument, and (c) develop internal consistency and stability evidence supporting the new instrument. Physical self-concept and body image research generally focuses on body-fatness, but since the 1990s, perceptions of muscularity have been a growing concern for some men and women (McCreary & Sadava, 2001; McCreary & Sasse, 2000; Olivardia et al., 2004; Pope et al., 2000). Currently, self-concept of muscularity measures use silhouettes that show inconsistent validity and reliability (Cafri & Thompson, 2004). The two most popular physical self-concept instruments (Physical Self-Perception Profile, Fox & Corbin, 1989; and Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne,1994) do not include a measure of muscularity. The first study in this dissertation assessed the content relevance and representativeness of the new instrument based on ratings provided by an expert panel of academics. The second study assessed the content relevance and representativeness of the new instrument based on ratings provided by a panel of fitness experts. The third study assessed the internal structural validity of the instrument using exploratory factor analysis. The fourth study assessed the internal structural validity using exploratory factor analysis, criterion related validity (external variables included body mass index, physical activity level, exercise participation, exercise identity, drive for muscularity and drive for thinness) and internal consistency reliability and stability over a one-week time period. The validity evidence presented in this dissertation provides support for the general physical-self concept scale which includes the self-concepts of muscle-tone, muscle-bulk, muscle-strength and body-fat. The distinction of muscle-tone relative to muscle-bulk and body-fatness requires future work to improve the conceptual clarity of these constructs.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 2270624
Last modified: 2015:10:12 14:44:53-06:00
Filename: Loitz_Christina_Fall 2012.pdf
Original checksum: 0d13a521eb1bba3e6b3675d1925cfcc4
Well formed: true
Valid: true
Status message: Too many fonts to report; some fonts omitted. Total fonts = 1087
Page count: 307
File language: en-US
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date