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Effects of Negatively Worded Items and the Provision of a Warning about the Inclusion of Negatively Worded Items in an Attitude Questionnaire Open Access


Other title
response set
careless responding
negatively worded items
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Riedel, Alexander
Supervisor and department
Rogers, Todd W. (Educational Psychology)
Examining committee member and department
Poth, Cheryl (Educational Psychology)
Varnhagen, Stanley (Faculty of Extension)
Department of Educational Psychology
Measurement, Evaluation and Cognition
Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Education
Degree level
It has been widely demonstrated that the inclusion of negatively worded items in attitude questionnaires can have adverse effects on the responses (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003).The present study examined the effect of a varying number of negatively worded items and the provision of a warning about the inclusion of negatively worded items on the responses of 333 students in a 12 item attitude questionnaire. Five questionnaire forms were used. The results revealed that the varying number of negatively worded items did not have an effect on the responses. The results furthermore indicated that no wording effects associated with negatively worded items were found except for one negatively worded item that exhibited high intensity in its negative form. Another finding was that there is no need for the provision of a warning. The implications of the results for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
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