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Older persons' transitions in care (OPTIC): A study protocol. Open Access


Author or creator
Cummings, G. G.
Reid, R. C.
Estabrooks, C. A.
Norton, P. G.
Cummings, G. E.
Rowe, B. H.
Abel, S. L.
Bissell, L.
Bottorff, J. L.
Robinson, C. A.
Wagg, A.
Lee, J. S.
Lynch, S. L.
Masaoud, E.
Additional contributors
emergency medical services
quality of care
nursing homes
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH) residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs). During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS), and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual) and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases). Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and researchers to participate equally in developing study goals, design, data collection, analysis and implications of findings. As preliminary and ongoing study findings are developed, their implications for practice and policy in study settings will be discussed by the research team and shared with study site administrators and staff. The study is designed to investigate the complexities of transitions and to enhance the potential for successful and sustained improvement of these transitions.
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This is an Open Access article distributed...
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation for previous publication
Cummings, G. G., Reid, R. C., Estabrooks, C. A., Norton, P. G., Cummings, G. E., Rowe, B. H., . . . Masaoud, E. (2012). Older persons' transitions in care (OPTIC): A study protocol. BMC Geriatrics, 12(1), 75.
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