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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R3G737G0X

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Electrodeposition of Sn-Rich, Au-Sn Solder Films Open Access

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Other title
Subject/Keyword
Sn-Rich
Electrodeposition
Au-Sn
Solder
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Watt, Charles S
Supervisor and department
Liu, Qi (Materials Engineering)
Ivey, Douglas (Materials Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Liu, Qi (Materials Engineering)
Chen, Weixing (Materials Engineering)
Cadien, Ken (Materials Engineering)
Ivey, Douglas (Materials Engineering)
Department
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
Specialization
Materials Engineering
Date accepted
2015-06-19T09:10:04Z
Graduation date
2015-11
Degree
Master of Science
Degree level
Master's
Abstract
Eutectic and near-eutectic tin (Sn) solder alloys have been indispensable when interconnecting and packaging electronic devices in the assembly of modern electronic circuits. Legislation has necessitated the implementation of lead (Pb)-free solder alternatives to replace near-eutectic Sn-Pb solders that were the most commonly used materials in the electronics industry. The Sn-rich eutectic alloy (90 wt% Sn) in the gold–tin (Au-Sn) system offers a potentially cheaper alternative to the Au-rich eutectic alloy (20 wt% Sn) for optoelectronic and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device packaging and may be applicable as a Pb-free solder for microelectronic packaging. A simple electrodeposition method is utilized to fabricate Sn-rich, Au–Sn solder films, including the eutectic composition. The electrolyte is composed of a solution of Sn chloride and ammonium citrate. Gold is added to the electrolyte in the form of either a Au nanoparticle (<20 nm) suspension, prepared with Na citrate, or by directly adding Au powder (500–800 nm particles). The resultant electrolytes are used to electrodeposit eutectic and near-eutectic alloy films. Uniform thicknesses and compositions are obtained with the direct addition of Au powder. Gold content in the deposits increases with increasing Au particle loading in the electrolyte and increasing current density. The intermetallic interactions and phase evolution in solder interconnections play an important role in the understanding the reliability and optimizing the solder process. The interactions between the Sn matrix and Au particles are examined. Room temperature aging leads to the formation of AuSn4 at the Au particle-Sn matrix interface. Reflow of deposits with near-eutectic compositions results in the formation of Sn and AuSn4.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R3G737G0X
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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