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Effect of growth hormone and therapeutic ultrasound on mandible and mandibular condyle Open Access


Other title
Growth Hormone
Mandibular growth
Micro-computed Tomography
Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Khan, Imran
Supervisor and department
El-Bialy, Tarek
El-Kadi, Ayman
Examining committee member and department
Siraki, Arno
Dederich, Douglas
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Previous studies have shown growth hormone and therapeutic low intensity pulsed ultrasound can enhance mandibular growth separately. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concomitant effect of both of these applications on mandibular growth in rat. Methods: 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, 6 in each. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were designated as untreated control, recombinant rat growth hormone, Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound, and combination of both groups respectively. After 21 days of daily treatment on mandibular condylar, mandibles from euthanized rats are dissected, and scanned by MicroComputed Tomography to measure the mandibular bone volume, bone surface area, and condylar bone mineral density. Also Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed on the extracted livers’ C-fos, C-jun, and IGF-1 genes expressions. Results: Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed significant (p<0.05) growth stimulation when compared to the untreated control group. However, there was no statistical significant difference between groups 2, 3 and 4 with regard to bone volume or surface area. Conversely, condylar bone mineral density for group 4 was significantly reduced than groups 1, 2, and 3. Rats’ weights were not significantly different among the treatment groups after the treatment was performed. Additionally, gene expression study showed that the expression of C-jun, in harvested livers for Group 4 was less than that of Group 2 showing fewer side effects. Conclusion: When growth hormone was applied to rats’ mandible together with therapeutic ultrasound, preferential increase in bone volume, and surface area occurred with the expense of condylar bone mineral density and with less potential side effects.
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