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Reliability and validity of the Hindi version of Falls Efficacy Scale – International (FES-I) among older adults in Alberta Open Access


Other title
FES-I (Hindi)
Fear of falling
Activity restriction
Falls Efficacy Scale - International
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Arora, Pranshu
Supervisor and department
Liu, Lili (Occupational Therapy)
Examining committee member and department
Freund, Rosalie (External)
Roberts, Mary Roduta (Occupational Therapy)
King, Sharla (Educational Psychology)
Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine
Rehabilitation Science - Occupational Therapy
Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Background: The Falls Efficacy Scale – International (FES–I) is a questionnaire developed to measure fear of falling by assessing an individual’s confidence in performing basic and complex activities. The validity and reliability of the FES-I has been determined for various versions in different languages and across cultural settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a Hindi version of the FES–I for use with older adults residing in Alberta, Canada. Methods: A sample of 23 Hindi speaking older adults, aged 60 years and older was recruited. Participants were administered the FES–I (Hindi) during a structured interview, along with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG). To assess test-retest reliability the scale was administered again after approximately two weeks from the initial interview. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Intra-class correlation coefficient, respectively. The FES–I (Hindi) was correlated with the functional measures (BBS and TUG) to examine construct validity using Spearman correlation coefficient. FESI-I (Hindi) scores of this study were compared to those of the original FES–I (English) study by age, gender, occupational status and history of falls. Independent t-test was used to compare differences in mean FES–I (Hindi) scores among participants of this study by the four demographic characteristics. Findings: The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of FES–I (Hindi) were significant: α = 0.831 (p = 0.000) and ICC = 0.894 (p = 0.000) (95% CI = 0.768 – 0.954), respectively. Spearman`s correlation coefficients between FES–I (Hindi) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and between FES–I and Timed Up and Go test (TUG), were significant: ρ = - 0.827 and ρ = 0.691 (p < 0.0001), respectively. There was significant difference in FES-I (Hindi) mean scores between participants by occupational status, t (21) = - 1.63 (p = 0.014), however, differences by age, gender and history of falls were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: FES–I (Hindi) was a reliable and valid measure of fear of falling among Hindi speaking participants in this study.
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