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Ichnology of the upper Toad and lower Liard formations, northeastern British Columbia: implications for infaunal recovery after the Permian- Triassic mass extinction Open Access


Other title
trace fossil
Middle Triassic
post-extinction recovery
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Hyodo, Tomonori
Supervisor and department
Zonneveld, John-Paul (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Gingras, Murray (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Examining committee member and department
Pemberton, George (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Heming, Bruce (Biological Sciences)
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
The Middle Triassic upper Toad and lower Liard formations at Williston Lake in northwestern British Columbia contain a suite of highly diverse ichnofossils. The environmental distribution of the ichnofossils is wide, ranging from marine offshore to upper shoreface. Compared with the Lower Triassic ichnofossils in northeastern British Columbia, ichnofossils in the Toad-Liard interval are larger and contain more complicated tiering relationships. Despite this difference, offshore sediments in the Middle Triassic include less diverse ichnofossils with simple tiering relationships. Therefore, except in offshore environments, the bottom water condition in the Middle Triassic was healthy and habitable, unlike the Lower Triassic. Moreover, the Middle Triassic ichnology in the studied interval suggests that marine ichnofacies models are applicable other than offshore ichnofossils. This implies that recovery after the end-Permian extinction was environmentally and faunally incomplete in the Middle Triassic of the study area. Ichnology, therefore, is useful for studies of post-extinction recovery. !
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