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Quantitation and application of bacteriocins in food Open Access


Other title
Clostridium botulinum
lactic acid bacteria
food safety
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Haveroen, Melissa E
Supervisor and department
Bressler, David (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
McMullen, Lynn (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Gänzle, Michael (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Vederas, John (Department of Chemistry)
Worobo, Randy (Department of Food Science, Cornell University)
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Several obstacles to widespread use of bacteriocins in food have been identified, including lack of specific, rapid quantitation methods, and little data on their efficacy in food systems. The first objective of this study was to develop a specific, rapid quantitation method for bacteriocins that did not rely on bioassays and their associated limitations. Phage display was chosen to reduce reliance on continued use of animals and produce antibodies to the bacteriocins leucocin A, piscicolin 126, and brochocin-A. Although the antibody libraries generated by phage display were not successful for antibody production, a strong immune response to leucocin A and piscicolin 126 was observed in mice. The second objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of brochocin-C against Clostridium botulinum in a model system and in a vacuum-packaged, chopped and formed pork product stored at refrigeration temperature. Group I Cl. botulinum was not controlled by brochocin-C, and was found to inactivate brochocin-C and several class IIa bacteriocins by proteolysis. Cell counts revealed that Group II Cl. botulinum was controlled by brochocin-C in a model meat system, but was not controlled in the chopped and formed pork product. Powdered smoke and NaCl in the pork product had a synergistic interaction against Group II Cl. botulinum, as shown by minimum inhibitory concentration testing. The choice of media for isolation of Cl. botulinum from the chopped and formed pork product was important, as the presence of background microflora isolated from the meat was found to impact growth of Group II Cl. botulinum on plating media. In the presence of the background microflora, which were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as carnobacteria and staphylococci, inclusion of phosphate in the plating medium was found to allow growth of Cl. botulinum. Other nutrients such as magnesium, sulphur, or increased protein sources added to the medium had no effect on growth of Cl. botulinum. Two of the background microflora strains, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum MH3 and Staphylococcus pasteuri EIV-21, inhibited Cl. botulinum, while one strain, C. maltaromaticum MH2, stimulated growth of Cl. botulinum.
License granted by Melissa Haveroen ( on 2011-04-12T21:41:19Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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