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"You meant to do that:" Examining reactive and proactive aggression and their relations to social and emotional correlates Open Access


Other title
peer relations
anger management
reactive and proactive aggression
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Bender, Stephanie
Supervisor and department
Smith, Veronica (Educational Psychology)
Examining committee member and department
McQuarrie, Lynn (Educational Psychology)
Rinaldi, Christina (Educational Psychology)
Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly (Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education, University of British Columbia)
Department of Educational Psychology

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Education
Degree level
This study investigated the relations between teacher-rated reactive and proactive aggression and self-ratings of peer intimacy, peer group integration, inhibition of anger and coping with anger in children in grade 4 to grade 6 (n = 519). Grade and gender differences in the study variables were also examined. Although not significant, as predicted, there was a trend towards significance where proactive aggression increased by grade; however, contrary to predictions, the occurrence of reactive aggression did not decrease by grade. The two functions of aggression were strongly correlated with one another. Males were reported more aggressive than females and self-reported lower anger management and less peer group intimacy than females. Further, females who were rated as more reactively aggressive reported less peer group integration and peer intimacy. Males who were reported as reactively aggressive also reported less peer group integration. Reactive and proactive aggression in males was related to coping with anger.
License granted by Stephanie Bender ( on 2009-08-25T19:26:34Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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