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Understanding the flowering gene complex in hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Open Access


Other title
Earliness per se
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Kamran, Atif
Supervisor and department
Spaner, Dean
Examining committee member and department
Strelkov, Stephen. Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta
Baenziger, Stephen. Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska.
Yang, Rong-Cai. Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta
Deyholos, Michael. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Plant Science
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Understanding the flowering gene complex in bread wheat is important to utilize the maximum production potential in a time-limited growing season. Vernalization (Vrn), photoperiod (Ppd) and earliness per se are the three genetic constituents of the flowering gene complex. A series of experiments were conducted to explore the role of each genetic constituent in Canadian spring wheat germplasm. The first experiment revealed vernalization and photoperiod gene frequency and effects in Canadian germplasm released between 1885 and 2008. Vernalization insensitive Vrn-A1a is the most frequent allele in the Canadian hard red spring class and Vrn-B1 is more frequent in Canadian soft white spring class. The photoperiod sensitive allele (Ppd-D1) is being replaced with the insensitive allele, Ppd-D1a, in all modern Canadian germplasm. An overall analysis of the data for the CWRS class revealed an average reduction of 0.04 days/year in maturity and an increase of about 8 kg/ha/year in grain yield. A second study was conducted on the Cutler × AC Barrie population to map and characterize the earliness per se QTL. Three QTLs of earliness per se affecting days to flowering and maturity were mapped on chromosomes 1B (QEps.dms-1B1 and QEps.dms-1B2) and 5B (QEps.dms-5B1). Two grain yield QTLs were mapped on chromosome 5B. The photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a interacted in an additive fashion with QTLs for flowering and maturity times. The earliness per se QTL QFlt.dms-5B.1 together with Ppd-D1a can induce earlier flowering and could help to elongate grain filling duration for higher grain yields. A comparative study of Vrn alleles suggests that the presence of Vrn-D1 along with Vrn-A1a and Vrn-B1 confers higher grain yield with similar maturity compared to all other Vrn gene groups in soft white spring wheat and we suggested the inclusion of Vrn-D1 allele in elite Canadian germplasm, which has been overlooked in the past. In a final study we found that early flowering and maturity conferred by insensitive vernalization alleles Vrn-A1a and/or Vrn-B1 has not conferred any yield advantage under organic conditions. The results also revealed that there is significant genotype × environment interaction and breeding for organic production should be practiced under organic conditions.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Kamran, A, M Iqbal, A Navabi, HS Randhawa, C Pozniak, and D Spaner. 2013. Earliness per QTLs and their interaction with photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a in Cutler × AC Barrie spring wheat population. Theor Appl Genet DOI 10.1007/s00122-013-2110-0. Published online May 2013Kamran, A, HS Randhawa, C Pozniak, and D Spaner. 2013. Phenotypic Effects of the Flowering Gene Complex in Canadian Spring Wheat Germplasm. Crop Sci. 53:84–94.Kamran, A, HS Randhawa, C Pozniak, and D Spaner. The effect of vernalization genes on important agronomic traits in high yielding Canadian soft white spring wheat. Accepted in Plant Breeding doi:10.1111/pbr.12149.Kamran, A, RC Yang, HS Randhawa, and D Spaner. Relative performance of the Canadian spring wheat cultivars under organic and conventional field conditions. Accepted in Euphytica DOI 10.1007/s10681-013-1010-3.

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