Download the full-sized PDF of Humour and Gender Hegemony: The Panoptical Role of Ridicule vis-à-vis GenderDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

Humour and Gender Hegemony: The Panoptical Role of Ridicule vis-à-vis Gender Open Access


Other title
Ellen (sitcom)
Qazvini jokes
Rashti jokes
gender order
US humor
gender studies
critical humor studies
critical humour studies
Iranian studies
cultural studies
Persian humor
gender and sexuality
social order
masculinity studies
Two and a Half Men
Persian humour
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Abedinifard, Mostafa
Supervisor and department
Varsava, Jerry (English and Film Studies; Modern Languages and Cultural Studies)
Examining committee member and department
Delia Carmela Chiaro (External Reader; Department of Interpreting and Translation, University of Bologna)
Albert Braz (Modern Languages and Cultural Studies; English and Film Studies)
Gary Kelly (Modern Languages and Cultural Studies; English and Film Studies)
Mannani, Manijeh (Adjunct Professor; Athabasca University)
Lahoucine Ouzgane (English and Film Studies)
Sywenky, Irene (Modern Languages and Cultural Studies)
Comparative Literature

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
In this dissertation, I read gender humour through the lens of masculinities studies and critical humour studies to contribute to gender studies and humour studies. I engage two crucial problems and propose solutions and possibilities. The first problem concerns the state of the concept of ridicule—as a form/aspect of humour—within gender-related debates and specifically ridicule’s place in challenging and enforcing gender hegemony. In such discussions, ridicule and humour are frequently mentioned as insidious social control strategies through which certain forms of masculinity and femininity are abjected. Despite their recognizing such role of ridicule, however, the above debates never grant the role any theoretical significance. Critically reviewing the related literature, I draw on Michael Billig’s theory of ridicule as a universal reinforcer of the social order to argue that ridicule, as occurring in mainstream gender humour, plays a panoptical role in enforcing inequitable gender relations. As a pervasive disciplinary tool, gendered ridicule causes self-regulation in social agents who then wish to consent to the cultural ascendancy of certain modes of gender performance and the subordination of certain other forms of performing gender. By connecting this fearful consent to debates in gender studies about the role of abjection in the creation of gendered subjectivities, I also hypothesize that ridicule occupies a necessary role in the creation of gendered beings in the first place. I raise my main argument in Chapter One. In Chapters Two to Four, I illustrate the argument by analyzing various types of mainstream gender humour—with a particular emphasis on the genres of canned joke and sitcom—from Iranian and Anglo-American (mainly the U.S. and the U.K.) societies and cultures. The main humour types and/or categories include those targeting women, homosexuals, effeminates as well as bodily non-normative and ethnic/racial femininities and masculinities. For the Anglo-American sections (Chapter Two and parts of Chapter Four), besides related joke cycles, episodes from the sitcoms Two and a Half Men (2003-2015) and Ellen (1994–1998) as well as spots from the Get a Mac Ad campaign (2006-2009) are analyzed. For the Iranian part (Chapter Three and parts of Chapter Four), the main focus is put on the contemporary Qazvini and Rashti joke cycles, the sexual humour of the classical Persian satirist Ubeyd Zakani (d. ca. 1370), and his modern counterparts. My main argument, given humour’s well-known potential for subversion, may arouse the objection that ridicule always exists as a counterhegemonic tool to resist hegemonic gender norms. I tackle this possibility in the last Chapter Five, where I discuss the possibilities and restraints of feminist and in-group lesbian humour as representative categories of fringe or non-mainstream gender humour. I argue that this resistant humour, due to its minimal normalizing power—compared to the heft of mainstream gender humour—apparently cannot offset the latter’s disciplinary power and thus be effectively subversive of patriarchy. The second problem I focus on is the way gender theories inform prevalent textual analyses of gender humour. Examining the pertinent literature, I argue that the critical blind spots need redress and enrichment. While analyzing gender humour, I argue, many humour scholars either resist gender theories or employ theories incapable of explaining intricacies related to gender. To address this insufficiency, I suggest that we use—as I have done throughout—comprehensive theories that not only embrace multiple masculinities and femininities but also heed the intersection of gender and other identity elements. I use Raewyn Connell’s gender hierarchy model as a case in point. In contrast to much work in gender studies that recognizes, yet understates, ridicule’s political force in favour of gender hierarchy, this research contends that the above force is universal and central, and therefore must be foregrounded in gender studies. Within humour studies, too, the research contrasts with exculpatory accounts of humour that downgrade or deny humour’s effect on the social order. My findings indicate that mainstream gender humour, while reflecting the gender order, is most likely to affect that order, too. Finally, unlike much research in feminist humour studies that puts too much hope in seditious functions of fringe or marginal gender humour, I find that such humour cannot find recognition among mainstream audiences unless its underlying assumptions find cultural ascendancy.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Abedinifard, Mostafa. "The Gender Politics of Iraj Mirza's 'Aref-Nameh': A Critique of Anna Ghoreishian's 'Gender and Sexual Organs'." Iran Nameh: A Persian Quarterly of Iranian Studies 28.3 (Fall 2013): 200-215.Abedinifard, Mostafa. "Rev. of Laughter and Ridicule: Towards a Social Critique of Humour." Inquire: Journal of Comparative Literature 2.1 (2012). Web.

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (PDF/A)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 2391987
Last modified: 2015:10:22 06:03:21-06:00
Filename: Abedinifard_Mostafal_201503_PhD.pdf
Original checksum: e7ffdb75571276108eeece1de740e9ca
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date