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Barley beta-glucan in bread: the journey from production to consumption Open Access


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Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Moriartey, Stephanie
Supervisor and department
Dr. Feral Temelli, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science
Dr. Michael Gänzle, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science
Dr. Thava Vasanthan, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science
Examining committee member and department
Dr. Karen Madsen, Medicine
Dr. Gary Fulcher, Food Science, University of Manitoba
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
β-Glucan is a soluble fibre shown to help regulate blood sugar and lower cholesterol. Incorporation into food, particularly bread, may affect β-glucan’s physicochemical properties and health benefits. The journey of β-glucan through the mixing, fermenting, baking, and storage of bread was evaluated, in terms of its solubility and viscosity under in vitro physiological conditions, at levels most likely to be presented to consumers (0.75, 1.0, 1.5 g β-glucan/serving). Satiety and glycemic response measures, in addition to the quality and consumer acceptability of the bread, were also investigated. In dough, viscosity of the physiological extract was impacted by β-glucan level, fermentation time, and endogenous flour enzymes. Fermentation decreased β-glucan solubility indicating that the reduction in viscosity depends on both molecular degradation and solubility reduction. Dough rheological properties and microstructure, characterized using an oscillatory rheometer and fluorescence microscopy, respectively, showed that β-glucan may interfere with the gluten network, though gluten addition may help improve this. The bread’s physical properties supported these observations, as β-glucan decreased loaf volume and height, while gluten addition corrected this. Baking increased β-glucan solubilization to 58-60%, compared to 9% in dough. Gluten addition increased solubility further (67-68%). Similar trends were seen for extract viscosity and were supported by fluorescence microscopy images. Storage at ambient, refrigeration and frozen conditions showed that bread with β-glucan should be consumed fresh to maintain highest bread quality and β-glucan solubility and viscosity. Bread with β-glucan kept panelists full, longer. Reducing sugar release values implied that satiety may depend on digesta viscosity and/or rate of sugar release from the bread. Bread with β-glucan produced the most leveled glucose curve; though areas under the 2 hr plasma glucose curves were similar. Consumers liked the 0.75 g β-glucan/serving bread and the control more than the 1.5 g β-glucan/serving bread, though provision of health information improved bread liking to similar values. The findings demonstrate that low solubility β-glucan concentrate that gets solubilized upon baking is well suited for bakery applications and that a successful β-glucan-fortified bread product is possible. Commercialization of bread fortified with β-glucan would provide consumers an additional source of dietary fibre to assist them in coming closer to recommended daily intakes.
License granted by Stephanie Moriartey ( on 2009-10-02T22:13:09Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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File title: Physiological functionality of bread fortified with beta-glucan concentrate of low so at commercial levels
File author: Steph
Page count: 228
File language: en-US
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