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Dose-injury relationships for cryoprotective agent injury to human chondrocytes. Open Access
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Fahmy, M. D.
Almansoori, K. A.
McGann, L. E.
Elliott, J. A.
Jomha, N. M.
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Vitrification of articular cartilage (AC) could enhance tissue availability but requires high concentrations of cyroprotective agents (CPAs). This study investigated relative injuries caused by commonly used CPAs. We hypothesized that the in situ chondrocyte dose–injury relationships of five commonly used CPAs are nonlinear and that relative injuries could be determined by comparing cell death after exposure at increasing concentrations. Human AC samples were used from four patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty surgery. Seventy μm slices were exposed in a stepwise protocol to increasing concentrations of 5 CPAs (max = 8 M); dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol (Gly), propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and formamide (FM). Chondrocyte viability was determined by membrane integrity stains. Statistical analysis included t-tests and nonlinear least squares estimation methods. The dose–injury to chondrocytes relationships for all CPAs were found to be nonlinear (sigmoidal best fit). For the particular loading protocol in this study, the data identified the following CPA concentrations at which chondrocyte recoveries statistically deviated significantly from the control recovery; 1 M for Gly, 4 M for FM and PG, 6 M for Me2SO, and 7 M for EG. Comparison of individual means demonstrated that Gly exposure resulted in the lowest recovery, followed by PG, and then Me2SO, FM and EG in no specific order. The information from this study provides an order of damage to human chondrocytes in situ of commonly used CPAs for vitrification of AC and identifies threshold CPA concentrations for a stepwise loading protocol at which chondrocyte recovery is significantly decreased. In general, Gly and PG were the most damaging while DMSO and EG were among the least damaging.
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- © 2014 Elsevier. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
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M.D. Fahmy, K.A. Almansoori, L. Laouar, V. Prasad, L.E. McGann, J.A.W. Elliott, N.M. Jomha, Dose–injury relationships for cryoprotective agent injury to human chondrocytes, Cryobiology, Volume 68, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages 50-56, ISSN 0011-2240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.11.006
. ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011224013004240
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