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Waterpipe Use in Canada: Evidence, Perceptions, and Policy Implications Open Access


Other title
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Hammal, Fadi
Supervisor and department
Wild, T. Cameron
Examining committee member and department
Nykiforuk, Candace (Department of Public Health Sciences)
Finegan, Barry (Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine)
Wild, T. Cameron (Department of Public Health Sciences)
Department of Public Health Sciences
Health Policy Research
Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Canadian research on the phenomenon of waterpipe (WP) use has been slow to develop. Significant knowledge gaps have hampered tobacco control efforts in this area. This thesis presents results from three multidisciplinary studies that were designed to provide fundamental knowledge about WP use. Study 1 provided the first Canadian assessment of the chemical contents of commercially available, so-called ‘herbal’ shisha. Study 2 described knowledge of Canadian medical students about WP (and other tobacco) use. Study 3 explored young adults’ current knowledge and attitudes toward WP use. Collectively, the findings have important implications for designing appropriate education and prevention strategies to address the spread of WP use in Canada, and support an evidence-based approach to developing appropriate policies to address the phenomenon. For years, research interest in smoking WPs in Canada was limited. This created a knowledge gap in tobacco control efforts, which will require further efforts to increase our understanding of the determinants of WP smoking. The present research will help to increase awareness about its health hazards, to design special prevention and treatment interventions, and to incorporate WP use control policy within national and provincial tobacco control policies.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Hammal F, Chappell A, Wild TC, Kindzierski W, Shihadeh A, Vanderhoek A, Huynh CK, Plateel G, Finegan BA. 'Herbal' but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafés where they are served. Tob Control. 2013 Oct 15. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051169.Vanderhoek AJ, Hammal F, Chappell A, Wild TC, Raupach T, Finegan BA. Future physicians and tobacco: An online survey of the habits, beliefs and knowledge base of medical students at a Canadian university. Tob Induc Dis. 2013 Apr 4;11(1):9.

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