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Experimental Study of Submerged Hydraulic Jumps with Baffle Blocks Open Access


Other title
Energy dissipation
Baffle block
Velocity field
Submerged hydraulic jump
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Habibzadeh Gharehbaba, Alireza
Supervisor and department
Dr. Nallamuthu Rajaratnam (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Dr. Mark R. Loewen (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Dr. Carlos Lange (Mechanical Engineering)
Dr. John Alexander McCorquodale (Civil & Environmental Engineering, The University of New Orleans)
Dr. Tong Yu (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Dr. Faye Hicks (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Water Resources Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The current work presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of submergence on the performance of a submerged hydraulic jump with baffle blocks downstream of a sluice gate. A wide range of Froude numbers, submergence factors, and block sizes, locations and arrangements were covered in the experiments. It was observed that, depending on the submergence factor, two different flow regimes could be established; i.e. the deflected surface jet (DSJ) and the reattaching wall jet (RWJ). Empirical equations were presented for the transitional submergence factor between the two regimes. Also, a theoretical equation was derived for the drag force acting on the blocks. To study the flow field, an acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to measure the three-dimensional instantaneous velocities. The effect of the block size, location and arrangement on bulk energy dissipation was found to be insignificant. However, the block characteristics played an important role in determining the flow regime. As the size of the blocks increases, or they were moved further downstream, or a second row of blocks was added, the establishment of the DSJ flow regime was enhanced. It was observed that the DSJ flow regime is more efficient in dissipating the kinetic energy of the incoming flow. Also, the rate of reduction of the longitudinal velocity was faster in this flow regime. It was found that a larger portion of the flow depth is influenced by the blocks in the DSJ flow regime compared to the RWJ regime and significant mixing was observed between the centerplane and off-centerplane of the former. The turbulence flow field showed that the turbulence characteristics including turbulence intensities, Reynolds stress, turbulence kinetic energy and energy dissipation are influenced by the blocks in both planes of the two flow regimes, but the magnitudes were significantly larger in the off-centerplane of the DSJ regime. The considerable difference between the two planes of the DSJ flow regime creates a significant shear mixing interface, which is, in turn, responsible for enhancing the dissipation of energy and decaying of the velocity.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
1- Habibzadeh, A., Wu, S., Ade, F., Rajaratnam, N., and Loewen, M. R., ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 137(6), 706-710, June 2011.2- Habibzadeh, A., Loewen, M.R., and Rajaratnam, N., ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 138(10), 902-908, October 2012.3- Habibzadeh, A., Loewen, M.R., and Rajaratnam, N. “Mean Flow in a Submerged Hydraulic Jump with Baffle Blocks.” Accepted for publication in the ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics.

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