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Arsenic Speciation Towards Understanding the Environmental Fate of 3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic Acid Open Access


Other title
Chicken Litter
3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic Acid
Arsenic Speciation
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Yang, Zonglin
Supervisor and department
Le, X. Chris (Chemistry)
Examining committee member and department
Zhang, Hongquan (Laboratory Medicine & Pathology)
Li, Liang (Chemistry)
Department of Chemistry

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
A common practice in the poultry industry has been the addition of phenylarsenicals to the feed for the animals. However, the fate of these arsenicals is not clear. This thesis focuses on the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in litter of chickens that were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone®, ROX) over a 35-day period. An analytical technique using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. This hyphenated technique enabled the determination of eight arsenic species, including the feed additive ROX and its potential biotransformation products. 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA) and N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA) were identified, and they accounted for 5-27% of total arsenic in the litter of chickens fed the ROX-supplemented diet. The unchanged ROX remained as the major arsenic species, accounting for > 60% of the total arsenic. The concentrations of 3-AHPAA, N-AHAA, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, were consistently higher in the litter samples from the ROX-fed chickens than from the control chickens. These results suggest that ROX can be converted to several arsenic species. This research contributes to a better understanding of the fate of the common arsenic feed additive used in poultry.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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