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Phylogenetic Relationships and Biogeography of Fuschia (Onagraceae) Based on Noncoding Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Data Open Access


Author or creator
Berry, P.E.
Hahn, W.
Sytsma, K.J.
Hall, J.C.
Mast, A.R.
Additional contributors
trnL-F spacer
penalized likelihood
rpl16 intron
molecular clock
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Journal Article (Published)
To examine relationships and test previous sectional delimitations within Fuchsia, this study used parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses with nuclear ITS and chloroplast trnL-F and rpl16 sequence data for 37 taxa representing all sections of Fuchsia and four outgroup taxa. Results support previous sectional delimitations, except for F. verrucosa, which is related to a Central American clade rather than to section Fuchsia and is described here as a new section Verrucosa. The basal relationships within Fuchsia are poorly resolved, suggesting an initial rapid diversification of the genus. Among the species sampled, there is strong support for a single South Pacific lineage, a southern South American/southern Brazilian lineage, a tropical Andean lineage, and one or two Central American and Mexican lineages. There is no clear support for an austral origin of the genus, as previously proposed, which is more consistent with Fuchsia’s sister group relationship with the boreal Circaea. An ultrametric molecular clock analysis (all minimal dates) places the split between Fuchsia and Circaea at 41 million years ago (mya), with the diversification of the modern-day lineages of Fuchsia beginning at 31 mya. The South Pacific Fuchsia lineage branches off around 30 mya, consistent with fossil records from Australia and New Zealand. The large Andean section Fuchsia began to diversify around 22 mya, preceded by the divergence of the Caribbean F. triphylla at 25 mya. The Brazilian members of section Quelusia separated from the southern Andean F. magellanica around 13 mya, and the ancestor of the Tahitian F. cyrtandroides split off from the New Zealand species of section Skinnera approximately 8 mya
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PE Berry, W Hahn, KJ Sytsma, JC Hall and AR Mast. (2004). "Phylogenetic Relationships and Biogeography of Fuschia (Onagraceae) Based on Noncoding Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Data." American Journal of Botany 91: 601-614. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.91.4.601
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