Download the full-sized PDF of Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cowsDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Department of


This file is in the following collections:

Journal Articles (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)

Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows Open Access


Author or creator
Ametaj, Burim N.
Zebeli, Qendrim
Iqbal, Summera
Additional contributors
Metabolic Disorders
Nutritional Immunology
Dairy Cow
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.
Date created
License information

Attribution 4.0 International
Citation for previous publication
Ametaj, B. N., Zebeli, Q., & Iqbal, S. (2010). Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(supl. especial), 433-444.


Link to related item

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 138007
Last modified: 2017:09:06 16:43:26-06:00
Filename: RBZ_39_special_433.pdf
Original checksum: 31103aa4cc3600617158d00bf3e9ada1
Well formed: true
Valid: true
File title: 4320
File author: Administrador
Page count: 12
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date