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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R3K64B65Z

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Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows Open Access

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Author or creator
Ametaj, Burim N.
Zebeli, Qendrim
Iqbal, Summera
Additional contributors
Subject/Keyword
Endotoxin
Metabolic Disorders
Nutritional Immunology
Dairy Cow
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
Language
English
Place
Time
Description
In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.
Date created
2010
DOI
doi:10.7939/R3K64B65Z
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Attribution 4.0 International
Citation for previous publication
Ametaj, B. N., Zebeli, Q., & Iqbal, S. (2010). Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(supl. especial), 433-444.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010001300048

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