Download the full-sized PDF of The Development of a Technology-Explicit Bottom-Up Integrated Multi-Regional Energy Model of CanadaDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

The Development of a Technology-Explicit Bottom-Up Integrated Multi-Regional Energy Model of Canada Open Access


Other title
Energy use
Energy production
Energy model
Energy demand
Emission analysis
Canada energy
Energy outlook
Oil sands
Sankey diagram
Climate policy
Energy policy
Energy analysis
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Davis, Matthew, B
Supervisor and department
Kumar, Amit (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Davies, Evan (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Ahmad, Rafiq (Mechanical Engineering)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management
Date accepted
Graduation date
2017-11:Fall 2017
Master of Science
Degree level
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are currently at the crux of political, environmental, technological, and cultural discussions due to climate change. A drastic reduction of GHG emissions is needed in order to mitigate potentially catastrophic climate change impacts. This thesis presents the development of a bottom-up, data intensive, multi-regional energy model for Canada using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system. A novel energy model, the LEAP-Canada model employs an accounting-based framework to provide the ability to examine extensive ranges of energy use and GHG mitigation strategies. Business-as-usual energy and GHG emission outlooks are provided for Canada on the national level and for its provinces including British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, Ontario, and Atlantic Canada on individual levels. The LEAP-Canada model offers a unique and updated outlook on Canada’s integrated energy system as of 2017 and provides bottom-up capabilities for energy efficiency analysis, energy planning, and GHG mitigation scenario assessments to the year 2050. This research also interprets the energy flow from available primary fuel to end use in all of the provinces and territories in Canada for the year 2012 using Sankey diagrams. These flow charts illustrate energy production, imports, exports, and local consumption by economic sector, and quantify the amount of useful and rejected energy. The inflow and outflow values could help determine existing energy efficiencies and energy intensity improvement potential. This pictorial view of energy flow could help policy makers set targets for improving energy efficiency, select strategies for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, and help satisfy the vast global climate change challenges. An overview and analysis of the GHG landscape in Canada for the years 2014, 2030, and 2050 with Sankey diagrams is also conducted. Each major economic sector in Canada was analyzed, i.e., the electricity generation, residential, commercial and institutional, mining and upstream oil and gas industry, other industry sectors, transportation, and agriculture sectors. The emissions released in these sectors (combustion, fugitive, and non-energy) were traced back to the resources and fuels responsible. GHGs in exported resources and fuels are included in the analysis. Diagrams are provided for Canada as well as for all the major provinces in Canada including British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic Provinces. Comparisons between these regions were made in terms of absolute emissions and emission intensities. The LEAP-Canada model was then used to appraise, to 2050, the Western Canadian crude available for export as well as the energy demands and GHG emissions brought into each province from the Line 3, Energy East, Trans Mountain, Northern Gateway, and Keystone XL pipelines. Scenarios in which pipelines are proposed but not constructed were also analyzed. The impacts of crude-by-rail alternatives using bitumen with 30%, 15%, and 0% diluent were assessed and compared. Finally, this work quantifies oil sands emissions between 2010 and 2050 with the LEAP-Canada model. The greenhouse gas strategy of using British Columbia’s hydropower for oil sands operations was evaluated.
This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for the purpose of private, scholarly or scientific research. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
Citation for previous publication

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (PDF/A)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 16022264
Last modified: 2017:11:08 17:29:34-07:00
Filename: Davis_Matthew_B_201709_MSc.pdf
Original checksum: a65e2bf3c5f91a98e2f4bcba81e630ad
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date