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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R30000236

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Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: Basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae) Open Access

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Author or creator
Ball, G. E.
Acorn, J. H.
Shpeley, D.
Additional contributors
Subject/Keyword
Nebriitae
Carabitae
Carabidae
Mouthparts
Cicindelitae
Pre-oral mill
Comparative morphology
Trachypachidae
Evolution
Coleoptera
Type of item
Conference/workshop Presentation
Language
English
Place
Time
Description
Abstract: Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholcz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): let-nu-ha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNA evidence. Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate cerebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter.
Date created
2011
DOI
doi:10.7939/R30000236
License information
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
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Citation for previous publication
Ball, G.E., Acorn, J.H., Shpeley, D. (2011). Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: Basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae). In: Erwin, T. (ed.) Proceedings of a symposium honoring the careers of Ross and Joyce Bell and their contributions to scientific work. Burlington, Vermont, June 12-15, 2010. ZooKeys, 147, 39-83. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.147.2052.
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