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Function and Regulation of PKD2 and PKD2L1 Open Access


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Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Yang, Jungwoo
Supervisor and department
Chen, Xing-Zhen (Physiology)
Examining committee member and department
Leslie, Elaine (Physiology)
Alexander, Todd (Physiology)
Duszyk, Marek (Physiology)
Department of Physiology

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited genetic disorder, inducing cysts in kidney, liver and pancreas. It is caused by pathogenic mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 gene encoding PKD1 or PKD2 respectively. Cellular abnormalities in ADPKD include cell over-proliferation and apoptosis. PKD2 is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel and functions as an anti-apoptotic and anti-cell proliferation protein. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) by pancreatic ER-resident eIF2α kinase (PERK), which inhibits global protein synthesis and up-regulates the translation of selected target proteins. In Chapter 2, using cultured mammalian cell lines, we found that PKD2 represses cell proliferation through promoting the eIF2α phosphorylation by PERK. PKD2 knock-down repressed ER stress-induced eIF2α phosphorylation, indicating that PKD2 facilitates the eIF2α phosphorylation by PERK. We also found that PKD2 interacts with PERK and eIF2α. Together, we demonstrate that PKD2 down-regulates cell proliferation by promoting PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation, presumably through a physical interaction. In Chapter 3, using cultured mammalian cell lines, we showed that PKD2 protein expression is up-regulated by cellular stresses which all increase P-eIF2α without increasing PKD2 mRNA. Increasing P-eIF2α by salubrinal or by over-expression of eIF2α up-regulates the PKD2 level. Over-expression of Gadd34 or eIF2α knock-down suppressed ER stress-induced PKD2 up-regulation. We also found that ER stress increases binding of PKD2 mRNA molecules with ribosomes, and the regulation of PKD2 by P-eIF2α is mediated by the upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the PKD2 5’-untranslated region. Therefore, this study demonstrates that P-eIF2α translationally up-regulates PKD2 protein expression through the uORF of PKD2. PKD2L1 is a Ca2+-modulated non-selective cation channel. In Chapter 4, we found, using Xenopus oocyte, that the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) binds with the PKD2L1 N-terminus and inhibits its channel activity. This was supported by our finding that over-expressed N-terminal fragment Met1–Pro45 acts as a blocking peptide and abolishes the inhibitory effect of RACK1. Therefore, we demonstrate that RACK1 binds with Met1–Pro45 of PKD2L1 to inhibit its channel activity. Therefore, our studies constitute valuable contributions to understanding the function and regulation of PKD2 and PKD2L1.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Liang, Genqing. 2008. Human Molecular Genetics.Yang, Jungwoo. 2012. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY.

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