Download the full-sized PDF of Transformations in Zimbabwean Traditional Music of North AmericaDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

Transformations in Zimbabwean Traditional Music of North America Open Access


Other title
African Music
Women, Music Education
Music Notation
Attractions to Zimbabwean Music
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Muparutsa, Tendai
Supervisor and department
Frishkopf, Michael (Department of Music)
Examining committee member and department
Thompson, Guy (De[artment of History and Classics)
Gier, Christina (Department of Music)
Qureshi, Regula (Department of Music)
Campbell, Patricia, S. (Departments of Music Education and Ethnomusicology, UW USA)
Robinson, Kathy (Department of Education)
Department of Music

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Zimbabwean traditional music of North America has gone through notable transformation since its arrival over 40 years ago. The world has been dominated by a patriarchal view of itself in general, but as I observed and mingled with people, I witnessed a male- dominated music practice in Zimbabwe switching to a female-dominated practice in North America. The participation of women, business adventures, instrument building and camps have inspired this research. These are key transformations that are not common in Zimbabwe itself. In North America by way of comparison, people of all races, and women in particular, have become active in making this music. For generations, social and cultural limitations have slowed Zimbabweans’ musical development, women’s participation in traditional music performance, and music learning. As this music established itself in North America women have assumed leadership roles as they participate in large numbers. The Zimbabwean music community in North America has seen the rise of private marimba centers. Kutsinhira, Kutandara, Rubatano, Musango among others are some of the leading centers. There are other organizations and individuals who have made a mark in the transformation of Zimbabwean music. I discuss the music scene in Zimbabwe that is traditional, church-based, and popular and how these styles have evolved and transformed in North America. I discuss the attraction of the music, how it has spread in North America, and why. As a male Zimbabwean musician, seeing women perform is a significant step forward. Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. I traveled to multiple communities, festivals, and camps throughout North America, where I worked with participants, attended concerts and performed with bands. My research shows that in North America, more women are involved in performing, teaching, and listening to Zimbabwean music, a transformation on its own. Zimbabwean music of North America has also changed in the process, not sonically, but rather it has adopted new meanings and contexts. Furthermore, they have implemented ways of benefiting from the music other than only performing it.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 27348917
Last modified: 2015:10:12 11:43:16-06:00
Filename: Final Draft 2012.pdf
Original checksum: 51d13e72f2e95860416407029b12aeca
Well formed: true
Valid: true
Status message: File header gives version as 1.4, but catalog dictionary gives version as 1.3
File title: Microsoft Word - ###1Done Final Draft Diss .docx
File author: tm3
Page count: 382
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date