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Understanding the Context of Pharmacy Practice Change: Gaining insight into the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists’ personality Open Access


Other title
Pharmacy practice change
Personality traits
Knowledge translation
Professional culture
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Rosenthal, Meagen Marie
Supervisor and department
Tsuyuki, Ross T. (Medicine)
Examining committee member and department
Sutton, Jane (Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology)
Farris, Karen (Pharmacy Administration)
Cor, Ken (Faculty of Pharmacy)
Austin, Zubin (Faculty of Pharmacy)
Hall, Kevin (Faculty of Pharmacy)
Department of Medicine
Experimental Medicine
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Background: Pharmacists around the world are being asked to adopt, and integrate, an increasing number of clinical services into their practices. Evidence for the efficacy of pharmacists’ interventions in patient care also continues to grow. Traditional approaches to understanding practice change have not fully accounted for the environmental context of pharmacy practice. Aim: The aim of this work was to begin this process of understanding the context of pharmacy practice by gaining insight into the professional culture of pharmacy within Canada. Objectives: Objective 1: To gain insight into Canadian pharmacy’s professional culture, using the organizational culture profile (OCP), and personality traits, using the big five inventory (BFI). Objective 2: Investigate possible relationships between pharmacists’ responses to the OCP and BFI and proxy measures of advanced practice. Objective 3: Using demographic data including pharmacy practice setting, pharmacist role, level of education and region of practice to investigate possible sub-group differences in responses provided on the OCP and BFI. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used in each of the 5 studies included in this work. Participants included Alberta hospital pharmacists (Chapter 2), pharmacists with Additional Prescribing Authority participating in a pharmacy practice research trial (Chapter 3), a national sample of hospital pharmacists (Chapter 4), Alberta pharmacists with Additional Prescribing Authority (Chapter 5), and British Columbia pharmacists (Chapter 6). With the exception of the second study (Chapter 3) all surveys were administered online. A variety of measures, in addition to the OCP and BFI, were collected some examples of included measures include: number of years in practice, level of education, number of patients recruited into a pharmacy practice trial, region of practice, integration of Additional prescribing Authority into practice, and number of prescription adaptations provided each month. The results from each study were first analysed using descriptive statistics, and then using ANOVA analyses, with post-hoc testing, or regression analyses, as appropriate. Conclusions: One OCP factor, competitiveness was consistently repeated across the studies. Results from the BFI also identified one trait, conscientiousness, repeated across each of the 5 studies. A number of significant relationships were observed between the adoption of advanced practice opportunities and the factors of the OCP and the traits of the BFI. Finally, a number of important possible sub-group differences were also identified. Taken together these findings provide insight into the context of pharmacy practice. This improved understanding of context can be used in the development of future knowledge translation intervention studies to advance pharmacists’ practice.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
J. Hall, M. Rosenthal, H. Family, J. Sutton, K. Hall, RT. Tsuyuki. Personality traits of hospital pharmacists: improving our understanding of factors influencing pharmacy practice change. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacists 2013; 66(5): 289-295.

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