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Role of starch chemistry in the kinetics of nutrient absorption, endocrine profile, and intestinal health in swine Open Access


Other title
Swine -- Feeding and feeds
Swine -- Nutrition
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Regmi, Prajwal
Supervisor and department
Zijlstra, Ruurd T. (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
van Kessel, Andrew (College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan)
Vasanthan, Thavaratnam (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Gänzle, Michael (Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen (Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta)
Tappenden, Kelly (Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois)
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Starch is a major source of energy for monogastric species. Although starch digestibility is understood, the role of starch chemistry on nutrient absorption, endocrine function and gut health is not. Therefore, the objective was to characterize the role of starches with a range in amylose content and rate of in vitro digestion on the kinetics of nutrient absorption, endocrine profile, and gut microbial profile in pigs. Four high (70%) starch diets differing in amylose contents (0, 19.6, 28.4 and 63.2%) and rates of in vitro digestibility (1.06; S2, 0.73; S3, 0.38 and S4, 0.22%/min; rapidly to slowly digestible starches) were formulated. In study 1, four portal vein-catheterized pigs were fed the starch diets and blood samples were collected from the portal vein, carotid artery and simultaneous blood flow was measured until 12 hour after feeding. In vitro rates of glucose release corrected for gastric emptying was strongly related (R2 = 0.95) to the kinetics of portal glucose absorption. Slowly digestible starch decreased glucose absorption and secretion of insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but increased butyrate absorption and plasma betaine concentration. In study 2, fecal, ileal digesta, and urine samples were collected from eight ileal-canulated pigs fed the same diets. Slowly digestible starch decreased starch digestibility, increased total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and butyrate production and selectively increased the population of bifidobacteria in the gut. In addition, mineral digestion and absorption in the large intestine compensated lower absorption of Ca, P, Na, and Fe in the small intestine of pigs fed slowly digestible starch. In summary, slowly digestible starch is energetically less efficient compared to rapidly digestible starch and the starch reduces glucose absorption and insulin secretion and increases the production of butyrate and the population of bifidobacteria. However, substantial changes of starch chemistry (at least ≥ 40% amylose content and ≤ 0.36%/min of maximum in vitro digestion rate) were required to have potentially beneficial changes in pigs.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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