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In situ measurement of snowmelt infiltrationunder various topsoil cap thicknesses on a reclaimed site. Open Access


Author or creator
Christensen, A. F.
He, H.
Dyck, M. F.
Turner, L. E.
Chanasyk, D. S.
Naeth, M. A.
Nichol, C.
Additional contributors
water and heat dynamics
Seasonally frozen soils
ground thermal regime
phosphogypsum tailing
Fort Saskatchewan
snowmelt infiltration
Type of item
Journal Article (Published)
Understanding the soil and climatic conditions affecting the partitioning of snowmelt to runoff and infiltration during spring snow ablation is a requisite for water resources management and environmental risk assessment in cold semi-arid regions. Soil freezing and thawing processes, snowmelt runoff or infiltration into seasonally frozen soils have been documented for natural, agricultural or forested systems but rarely studied in severely disturbed systems such as reclaimed lands. The objective of this study was to quantify the snowmelt infiltration/runoff on phosphogypsum (PG) tailings piles capped with varying thicknesses of topsoil (0.15, 0.3, and 0.46 m) at a phosphate fertilizer production facility in Alberta. There are currently no environmental regulations specifying topsoil capping thickness or characteristics for these types of tailings piles. Generally, the function of the topsoil cap is to facilitate plant growth and minimize the amount of drainage into the underlying PG. Experimental plots were established in 2006 to better understand the vegetation and water dynamics in this reconstructed soil. In 2011, time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and temperature sensors were installed at various depths for continuous, simultaneous, and automated measurement of composite dielectric permittivity (ɛeff) and soil temperature, respectively. An on-site meteorological station was used to record routine weather data. Liquid water and ice content were calculated with TDR-measured effective permittivity (ɛeff) and a composite dielectric mixing model. Spatial and temporal change of total water content (ice and liquid) revealed that snowmelt infiltration into the topsoil cap increased with increasing topsoil depth and net soil water flux from the topsoil cap into the PG material was positive during the snowmelt period in the spring of 2011. Given the objective of the capping soil is to reduce drainage of water into the PG material it is recognized that a capping soil with a higher water-holding capacity could reduce the amount of meteoric water entering the tailings.
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License information
© 2013 Agricultural Institute of Canada. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
Citation for previous publication
Christensen, A. F., He, H., Dyck, M. F., Turner, L., Chanasyk, D. S., Naeth, M. A. and Nichol, C. 2013. In situ measurement of snowmelt infiltration under various topsoil cap thicknesses on a reclaimed site. Can. J. Soil Sci. 93: 497–510.
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