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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R35M62739
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Threshold considerations and wetland reclamation in Alberta’s mineable oil sands Open Access
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Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km(2) of open pit mining and 4600 km(2) of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very attractive because proven reserves of known quality occur in an accessible, politically stable environment with existing infrastructure and an estimated 5.5 billion extractable barrels to be mined over the next five decades. Extraction occurs under a set of limiting factors or thresholds including: limited social tolerance at local to international levels for externalities of oil sand production; water demands > availability; limited natural gas supplies for oil processing leading to proposals for hydroelectric dams and nuclear reactors to be constructed; difficulties in reclaiming sufficient habitat area to replace those lost. Replacement of the 85 km(2) of peat-forming wetlands forecast to be destroyed appears unlikely. Over 840 billion liters of toxic fluid by products are currently held in 170 km(2) of open reservoirs without any known process to purify this water in meaningful time frames even as some of it leaches into adjacent lands and rivers. Costs for wetland reclamation are high with estimates of $ 4 to $ 13 billion, or about 6% of the net profits generated from mining those sites. This raises a social equity question of how much reclamation is appropriate. Time frames for economic, political, and ecological actions are not well aligned. Local people on or near mine sites have had to change their area use for decades and have been affected by industrial development. Examining mining effects to estimate thresholds of biophysical realities, time scales, economic allocations, and social tolerance helps to contextualize the needs for decision making and relevant policy formation as a way of constructively reconciling production with governing safeguards to the environment and citizens.
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- © 2012 Foote. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
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Foote, A.L. (2012). Threshold considerations and wetland reclamation in Alberta’s mineable oil sands. Ecology and Society, 17(1), 35-46. DOI: 10.5751/ES-04673-170135.
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