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An Investigation of Using n-Si Piezoresistive Behavior to Develop a Three-Dimensional Stress Sensing Rosette Open Access


Other title
Stress sensor
Stress analysis
Stress sensing rosette
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Gharib, Hossam M.H.
Supervisor and department
Moussa, Walied (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Jar, Ben (Mechanical Engineering)
Mertiny, Pierre (Mechanical Engineering)
Sameoto, Dan (Mechanical Engineering)
Mansour, Raafat (Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo)
Thundat, Thomas (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
This work involves the design, microfabrication, calibration, and testing of a new silicon-based piezoresistive rosette capable of extracting the three-dimensional (3D) stresses in the silicon upon deformation. A new 10-element piezoresistive rosette was devised to extract all stress components with temperature compensation compared to the 8-element rosette developed by previous researchers, which delivers partially temperature-compensated stress output. The proposed rosette is made up of either dual- or single-polarity sensing elements through utilizing the unique behavior of the shear piezoresistive coefficient (pi44) in n-Si with impurity concentration. An analytical study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of the new approach. The analysis is based on solving the determinants of the coefficients of the matrices describing the resistance change versus stress and temperature for the sensing elements. The calculated determinants over a range of impurity concentrations showed non-zero regions, thus indicating the feasibility of the approach. A full experimental study including the microfabrication, calibration and testing of the 10-element single-polarity rosette was conducted to demonstrate the actual behavior of the rosette in extraction of the 3D stresses. An early prototype, named POC chip, using diffusion doping was used to calibrate the piezoresistive coefficients and temperature coefficient of resistance and calculate the determinants to support the analytical study. The calibration process involved applying uni-axial and thermal loads on the sensing elements. The resulting determinants from the calibration process indicated non-zero values, thus verified the experimental feasibility of the approach. On the other hand, the second prototype, named test chip, using ion implantation doping was used for testing of the rosette after conducting a full calibration process involving uni-axial, thermal, and hydrostatic loads. The testing of the test chip was conducted by applying a four-point bending of a chip-on-beam specimen at room temperature. Three chip orientations and three rosette-sites were used to induce five stress components in a controlled manner, while the out-of-plane normal stress was not tested independently due to its low sensitivity in the current microfabrication run. A finite element model (FEM) of the chip-on-beam loading was developed to compare to the stress output from the experimental testing. The five stress components were extracted from the three rosette-sites and showed good correlation with the FEM.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
H. H. Gharib and W. A. Moussa, "On the Feasibility of a New Approach for Developing a Piezoresistive 3D Stress Sensing Rosette," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, pp. 1861-1871, 2011.H. H. Gharib and W. A. Moussa, "A Single-Polarity Piezoresistive Three-Dimensional Stress-Sensing Rosette," IEEE Journal of MEMS, vol. 20, pp. 555-557, 2011.H. H. Gharib and W. A. Moussa, "Microfabrication and calibration of a single-polarity piezoresistive three-dimensional stress sensing chip," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 23, p. 035019, 2013.

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