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Functional proteome and microRNAome of beef cattle adipose tissue Open Access


Other title
gene expression
Adipose tissue
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Romao, Josue M
Supervisor and department
Guan, Leluo (Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta)
Examining committee member and department
Guan, Leluo (Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
McAllister, Tim (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge)
Plastow, Graham (Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Stothard, Paul (Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Bruce, Heather (Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Loor, Juan (Department of Animal Sciences)
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Animal Science
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Adipose tissue plays an important role in the energetic balance, but it is also an important aspect of meat quality and animal productivity. However, the understanding on how fat metabolism is regulated in beef cattle is not clear. This research aimed at exploring how bovine adipose tissue is molecularly regulated by proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) under different conditions. Study 1 detected a total of 244 miRNAs in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of steers fed different diets (high or low fat content). Several miRNAs responded to dietary changes (miR-19a, -92a, -92b, -101, -103, -106, -142-5p, and 296) or fat depot (miR-196a and -2454), and were predicted to be involved in different aspects of lipid metabolism such as lipid synthesis and oxidation. Study 3 showed that the compositional structure of DNA that surrounded 155 miRNA genes was associated with miRNA expression and function as clustered miRNAs and highly conserved miRNAs were more highly expressed and had more predicted targets than non-clustered or less conserved miRNAs. Bovine miRNAs were shown to work collectively in regulatory networks with other miRNAs or with genes that host intronic miRNAs. Study 2 identified and quantified 682 proteins in bovine adipose tissue revealing that the proteomic profile differs between fat depots, indicating important functional and physiological differences such as a higher metabolic activity of visceral fat. Besides, fat depots also respond differently to diet, as subcutaneous fat seems to be more responsive to dietary changes. Study 4 showed that subcutaneous fat expansion in steers from 12 to 15 months of age (finishing) occurred concomitant with expression changes in 123 out of 627 proteins. Differentially expressed (DE) proteins were associated with several biological processes. Proteomic changes related to lipid metabolism indicated a reduction in the synthesis of fatty acids at the cellular level when steers were older. These findings improved our understanding on how adipose tissue is regulated. They may help the development of strategies to manipulate bovine adiposity that consider the specific molecular regulation and physiology of different fat depots and their response to dietary manipulation, as well as the different periods of development of beef cattle.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Romao, J.M.; Jin,W.; He, M.; McAllister, T.; Guan, L.L. 2012. Altered MicroRNA Expression in Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissues from Cattle under Different Diet. PloS One 7(7): e40605. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040605.Romao, J.M.; Jin, W.; He, M.; McAllister, T.; Guan, L.L. 2013. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes. PLoS ONE 8(12): e83211. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083211.

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