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The relations between sleeping arrangements, and cultural values and beliefs in first generation Chinese immigrants in Canada Open Access


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Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Song, Jianhui
Supervisor and department
Masuda,Takahiko (Psychology)
Noels, Kimberly (Psychology)
Examining committee member and department
Goldberg, Wendy (Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine)
Skrypnek, Berna (Human Ecology)
Nicoladis, Elena (Psychology)
Department of Psychology

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between cultural values, social norms, and beliefs related to co-sleeping with the sleeping arrangements of first generation Chinese immigrants in Canada. The participants were 162 first generation Chinese immigrants from four Canadian cities who had children ranging from 2 months to 71 months (M = 37.9, SD = 18.06). Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural values and beliefs, value of parenting roles and family, value of romantic relationships, and beliefs of sleeping arrangements. Parents indicated their sleeping arrangements (i.e. where child slept and with whom the child slept). Participants were also asked to draw a picture of their bedroom(s) which indicated the location of the child’s and/or parent’s bed, and the distance between the two beds. Results indicated that 77% Chinese parents in this study co-slept with their pre-school aged child, whereas only 23% parents let their child sleep in their own bedroom. Among the co-sleepers, half of the children slept in their parent’s bed, and half of them slept in their own bed, which was either attached to the parent’s bed or separated from the parent’s bed. The mean distance between the parents’ bed and the child’s bed was 21.15cm (SD = 42.74) for co-sleeping families, and 502.8 cm (SD = 188.69) for solitary sleeping families. Using stepwise regression analysis, the relations between demographic factor, space availability, values, norms, and beliefs, on the one hand, and sleeping arrangements, on the other, were examined. Personal beliefs about sleeping arrangements, including cultural beliefs of independence and interdependence, beliefs of marital quality, and beliefs of solitary sleeping, influence sleeping arrangements. Parents’ length of residency in Canada, child’s age, and bedroom numbers also influence sleeping arrangements. The findings have important implications for researchers and health professionals in terms of sleeping arrangements in the larger socio-cultural context.
License granted by Jianhui Song ( on 2010-09-25T06:20:30Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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