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Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Sand-Water Slurry Jets in Water Open Access


Other title
Turbulent jets
Slurry jets
Solid-liquid jets
Two phase flow
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Azimi, Amir Hossein
Supervisor and department
Dr. D. Z. Zhu and Dr. N. Rajaratnam
Examining committee member and department
Dr. P. Y. Julien, Dept. Civil & Env. Eng., University of Colorado
Dr. P. Steffler, Dept. Civil & Env. Eng., University of Alberta
Dr. C. F. Lange, Dept. Mech., University of Alberta
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Water Resources Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Sand-laden jets can be found in many engineering applications, such as, marine bed capping, mining operations, hydro-transport, dredging material disposal, and discharge of industrial and domestic wastewater. Understanding the dynamic interactions of the sand particles and its ambient are important for proper design and optimizing the engineering systems. Mass, momentum and energy of the system can be influenced by interactions of the suspended particles within the jet. As a result, the hydrodynamics of the flow of particle and fluid velocities, turbulence, and shear stresses are affected by particle interaction mechanisms which increase the complexity of the system and mixing phenomenon. The conducted experimental studies and numerical modeling in this thesis are new in terms of the fundamental understanding, flow characteristics and numerical techniques in simulation of sediment laden jets in water. The obtained results of this study can be used in many other environmental problems, such as marine construction, building artificial islands, deep ocean mining and discharge of sewage sludge into water bodies. Part of this thesis focused on the numerical investigation of sand and slurry jets. Effects of the controlling parameters of the jets such as, particle size, nozzle diameter, initial velocity and particle concentration were investigated and it was found that in contrast with single-phase water jet, the water-phase spreading of slurry jets is function of nozzle size and particle concentration. Numerical experiments revealed that the water-phase centreline velocity of slurry jets increased with increasing particle concentration. Empirical formulations were introduced to show these strong correlations between densimetric Froude number, particle concentration and the velocity decay of slurry jets. Particle-laden jets are commonly observed when particles are released instantaneously into water bodies but less attention has been devoted to study the starting of particle-laden jets and jet front with relatively high particle concentrations. It was found that the jet front terminal velocities, uf∞, of small particles were as large as 5 times of the individual particle settling velocity, u∞.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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