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Journal Articles (Philosophy)

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  1. Multilevel research strategies and biological systems [Download]

    Title: Multilevel research strategies and biological systems
    Creator: O'Malley, Maureen A.
    Description: Multilevel research strategies characterize contemporary molecular inquiry into biological systems. We outline conceptual, methodological, and explanatory dimensions of these multilevel strategies in microbial ecology, systems biology, protein research, and developmental biology. This review of emerging lines of inquiry in these fields suggests that multilevel research in molecular life sciences has significant implications for philosophical understandings of explanation, modeling, and representation.
    Subjects: Mathematical Models, Multilevel Models, Academic Communities, Modeling, Conceptualization, Microbiota, Microbial Ecology, Phenomena, Molecular Interactions, Ecological Modeling
    Date Created: 2014
  2. Russell’s Marginalia in his Copies of Frege’s Works [Download]

    Title: Russell’s Marginalia in his Copies of Frege’s Works
    Creator: Linsky, Bernard
    Description: A transcription of Russell's marginal comments in his copies of Frege's works, from his readings of Frege in 1902. The greatest number are in the early sections of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, Vol. I, but there are also marginal comments in Begriffsschrift, Grundlagen der Arithmetik, \"Ueber Formale Theorien der Arithmetik\", \"Ueber Begriff und Gegenstand\", \"Function und Begriff\", \"Kritische Beleuchtung einiger Punkte in E. Schroeders ...\" and two corrections of typographical errors in \"Ueber Sinn und Bedeutung\".
    Subjects: Bertrand Russell Text
    Date Created: 2004
  3. Putting Community under Erasure: The Dialogue between Jacques Derrida and Jean-Luc Nancy on the Plurality of Singularities [Download]

    Title: Putting Community under Erasure: The Dialogue between Jacques Derrida and Jean-Luc Nancy on the Plurality of Singularities
    Creator: Morin, Marie-Eve
    Description: In a note at the end of the essay 'The inoperative community,' Jean-Luc Nancy describes the writing of our being-in-common, or of our being-with, as a community of writing: 'inserted, alternated, shared, divided texts, as all texts are, offering that which does not belong to anyone, but which comes back to all: the community of writing, the writing of the community' (1990: 104).1 In this essay, I wish to focus on the community of thinking between Jacques Derrida and Jean-Luc Nancy. The relationship between those two thinkers is far from unambiguous: if they can be said to be thinking together, it certainly does not simply mean that they think the same thing or that they think it in the same way. To explicate this relationship in all its complexity, I will proceed in four steps. First, I want to show how, despite all the differences in strategy, we can find a certain commonality of project between Derrida and Nancy, namely the need to put community under erasure. Second, I want to focus on some of the different ways in which they carry out that project, namely by a deconstruction of fraternity or by an interruption of myth. In the third part, which represents the bulk of this essay, I want to show how the differences in strategy originate from different interpretations of the current philosophical and political context on the part of the two thinkers. I also want to show how this leads both of them to develop radically different concepts of singularities and of the plurality of such singularities. Lastly, I want to underline the link between both thinkers' concepts of community and the political.
    Subjects: Nancy, Jean-Luc, Community, Derrida, Jacques
    Date Created: 2006
  4. From English to Logic: Context-Free Computation of 'Conventional' Logic Translations [Download]

    Title: From English to Logic: Context-Free Computation of 'Conventional' Logic Translations
    Creator: Schubert, Lenhart K.
    Description: Introduction: We describe an approach to parsing and logical translation that was inspired by Gazdar's work on context-free grammar for English. Each grammar rule consists of a syntactic part that specifies an acceptable fragment of a parse tree, and a semantic part that specifies how the logical formulas corresponding to the constituents of the fragment are to be combined to yield the formula for the fragment. However, we have sought to reformulate Gazdar's semantic rules so as to obtain more or less 'conventional' logical translations of English sentences, avoiding the interpretation of NPs as property sets and the use of intensional functors other than certain propositional operators. The reformulated semantic rules often turn out to be slightly simpler than Gazdar's. Moreover, by using a semantically ambiguous logical syntax for the preliminary translations, we can account for quantifier and coordinator scope ambiguities in syntactically unambiguous sentences without recourse to multiple semantic rules, and are able to separate the disambiguation process from the operation of the parser-translator. We have implemented simple recursive descent and left-corner parsers to demonstrate the practicality of our approach.
    Subjects: Gazdar, G. J. M., Natural Language Processing, Logic
    Date Created: 1982
  5. Compositional Belief Update [Download]

    Title: Compositional Belief Update
    Creator: Delgrande, James
    Description: In this paper we explore a class of belief update operators, in which the definition of the operator is compositional with respect to the sentence to be added. The goal is to provide an update operator that is intuitive, in that its definition is based on a recursive decomposition of the update sentence's structure, and that may be reasonably implemented. In addressing update, we first provide a definition phrased in terms of the models of a knowledge base. While this operator satisfies a core group of the benchmark Katsuno-Mendelzon update postulates, not all of the postulates are satisfied. Other Katsuno-Mendelzon postulates can be obtained by suitably restricting the syntactic form of the sentence for update, as we show. In restricting the syntactic form of the sentence for update, we also obtain a hierarchy of update operators with Winslett's standard semantics as the most basic interesting approach captured. We subsequently give an algorithm which captures this approach; in the general case the algorithm is exponential, but with some not-unreasonable assumptions we obtain an algorithm that is linear in the size of the knowledge base. Hence the resulting approach has much better complexity characteristics than other operators in some situations. We also explore other compositional belief change operators: erasure is developed as a dual operator to update; we show that a forget operator is definable in terms of update; and we give a definition of the compositional revision operator. We obtain that compositional revision, under the most natural definition, yields the Satoh revision operator.
    Subjects: Constraints, Contraction, Knowledge Bases
    Date Created: 2008
  6. The Not-So-Strange Modal Logic of Indeterminacy [Download]

    Title: The Not-So-Strange Modal Logic of Indeterminacy
    Creator: Pelletier, Francis J.
    Description: P.P. Gibbins closes his article (\"The Strange Modal Logic of Indeterminacy\" Logique et Analyse #100 :443446) with \"But indeterminacy generates a strange modal logic. The semantical business of there being classes of indeterminate worlds accessible to no worlds not even to themselves is strange and not intuitively attractive.\" I wish to suggest that the logic of indeterminacy is not so strange as that While I agree Gibbins' final conclusion \"...that the modal logic of indeterminacy, construed as an extension of maximally determinate classic?' logic, affords a poor model for the deep idea of vagueness de re\" my reasons have rather to do with the idea that vagueness de re — that is, vagueness inhering in an object — is not plausibly construed by any operator on sentences. To say that an object is vague is to say at least that some predicate neither applies nor doesn't apply to it ; and this seems to call for some construal of sentences like Fa in a manner opposed to treating it first as meaningful and then prefixing an indeterminacy operator to it. But this is not the point of the present note. Rather, I content myself with showing that Gibbins' argument about the \"strangeness\" of the semantics of indeterminacy is ill-founded.
    Subjects: Logic, Model, Vagueness, Modal logic, Indeterminacy
    Date Created: 1984
  7. Six Problems in Translational Equivalence [Download]

    Title: Six Problems in Translational Equivalence
    Creator: Pelletier, Francis J.
    Description: I wish to first formulate a criterion according to which two systems of logic might be said to be \"really the same system\" in spite of their having different vocabulary — especially where the difference is in the logical operators each has. One way of doing this might be to show that the theorems of the two systems are validated by precisely the same structures ; but I am here interested in a more \"syntactic\" test for this. On an intuitive level, my desires could be expressed by saying that I want to be able to translate one system into the other, preserving theoremhood. For this reason I call it \"translational equivalence\" between the two systems.
    Subjects: Translation, Logic, Modal logic, Equivalence
    Date Created: 1984
  8. An Erratum for Some Errata to Automated Theorem Proving Problems [Download]

    Title: An Erratum for Some Errata to Automated Theorem Proving Problems
    Creator: Pelletier, Francis J.
    Description: Introduction: In 1986 Pelletier published an annotated list of logic problems, intended as an aid for students, developers, and researchers to test their automated theorem proving (ATP) systems. The 75 problems in the list are subdivided into propositional logic (Problems 1-17), monadic-predicate logic (Problems 18-34), full predicate logic without identity and functions (Problems 35-47), full predicate logic with identity but without functions (Problems 48-55), full predicate logic with identity and arbitrary functions (Problems 56-70), and problems to use in studying computational complexity of ATP systems (Problems 71-75). The problems were chosen partially for their historical interest and partially for their abilities to test different aspects of ATP systems. The problems were also assigned an intuitive \"degree of difficulty\", relativized to the type of problem. All the problems are presented in a \"natural form\" (which is here also called the \"first-order form\" or FOF), and most of them are also given in an equivalent negated conclusion clause normal form (CNF). The CNF versions of the problems are all in the TPTP Problem Library, and are thus conveniently available to ATP system developers who use the CNF form.
    Subjects: ATP systems, Logic
    Date Created: 1995
  9. William James's \"The Will to Believe\" and the Ethics of Self-experimentation [Download]

    Title: William James's \"The Will to Believe\" and the Ethics of Self-experimentation
    Creator: Welchman, Jennifer
    Description: William James's \"The Will to Believe\" has been criticized for offering untenable arguments in support of belief in unvalidated hypotheses. Although James is no longer accused of suggesting we can create belief ex nihilo, critics continue to charge that James s defense of belief in what he called the \"religious hypothesis\" confuses belief with hypothesis adoption and endorses willful persistence in unvalidated beliefs - not, as he claimed, in pursuit of truth, but merely to avoid the emotional stress of abandoning them. I argue that James's position in \"The Will to Believe\" can be defended provided we give up thinking of it as ethics of belief and think of it instead as an ethics of self-experimentation. Subjective data (including wants, needs, and desires) are relevant to rational consent to participation in research.
    Subjects: Justified Beliefs, Empirical Evidence, Autoexperimentation, Truth, Spiritual Belief Systems, Investment Risk, Experimentation, Scientific Belief, Research Ethics, Will to Believe
    Date Created: 2006
  10. Some Problems for \"Alternative Individualism\" [Download]

    Title: Some Problems for \"Alternative Individualism\"
    Creator: Wilson, Robert A.
    Description: This paper points to some problems for the position that D.M. Walsh calls \"alternative individualism,\" and argues that in defending this view Walsh has omitted an important part of what separates individualists and externalists in psychology. Walsh's example of Hox gene complexes is discussed in detail to show why some sort of externalism about scientific taxonomy more generally is a more plausible view than any extant version of individualism.
    Subjects: Externalism, Individualism, Psychology, Genes, Developmental Psychology, Philosophical Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Biological Taxonomies, Intrinsic Properties, Relational Properties
    Date Created: 2000