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  1. Phylogenetic analyses and fasta files of Porifera Wnts [Download]

    Title: Phylogenetic analyses and fasta files of Porifera Wnts
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: Supporting gene tree and fasta files associated with the journal article: "Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2017. Authors: Pamela J. Windsor Reid, Eugueni Matveev, Alexandra McClymont, Dora Posfai, April L. Hill, and Sally P. Leys. Abstract: Background: The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Results: Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Conclusions: Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.
    Subjects: Wnt genes, Porifera, Sponges
    Date Created: 2017/11/30
  2. Ephydatia muelleri Trinity transcriptome [Download]

    Title: Ephydatia muelleri Trinity transcriptome
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: ABSTRACT Background: The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Results: Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Conclusions: Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.
    Subjects: Freshwater sponge, Porifera, Transcriptome, Sponge
    Date Created: 2017/11/08
  3. Eunapius fragilis Trinity transcriptome [Download]

    Title: Eunapius fragilis Trinity transcriptome
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: ABSTRACT Background: The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Results: Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Conclusions: Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.
    Subjects: Freshwater sponge, Porifera, Sponge, Transcriptome
    Date Created: 2017/11/08
  4. Data from Kahn et al. (submitted) [Download]

    Title: Data from Kahn et al. (submitted)
    Creator: Kahn, Amanda S
    Description: Glass sponges provide a link between the microbial loop and the benthos by feeding on bacteria, a food source too small for most other animals. Glass sponge reefs on the continental shelf of western Canada have the highest grazing rate of any benthic suspension feeding community measured to date, consuming seven times more carbon than can be supplied by vertical flux alone. How do reef sponges get enough food to sustain such high rates of feeding? We studied the feeding biology of Aphrocallistes vastus and measured stable isotope signatures of reef sponges, water, and sediments to understand the sources of carbon to the reefs and its possible fate following digestion (either through assimilation into tissue or excretion). We found that particle uptake occurs in flagellated chambers but particles are digested elsewhere in the tissue. 13C-labeled bacteria filtered by sponges remained in the tissue for at least 14 days. Fecal pellets several times larger than the particles consumed were expelled from sponges within 24 hours of feeding. Stable isotope signatures suggest that bacterioplankton ingested by the sponges come from the surrounding water column, but also glass sponge reefs may rely on substantial carbon input from sediment-borne bacteria resuspended by tidal currents.
    Subjects: stable isotope analysis, Porifera, glass sponge reefs
    Date Created: 2017
  5. Geodia barretti - Energy budget data sheet for Limnology and Oceanography [Download]

    Title: Geodia barretti - Energy budget data sheet for Limnology and Oceanography
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: Geodia barretti is a massive nearly spherical sponge that forms dense assemblages on the continental shelf of the North Altantic and the Norwegian Sea. We studied the metabolism of individual sponges collected using a remotely operated vehicle and maintained in large tanks with high volumes of unfiltered water brought from 160m depth. We used direct methods (In-Ex) to measure excurrent flow rates, oxygen removed, and carbon and nutrient flux through the sponges. G. barretti had very low specific filtration (0.26 mL min-1 mL-1sponge tissue) and low respiration (5.34± 0.98 nmol O2 min-1 mL-1 sponge tissue; 8.44 ± 1.51 µmol O2 hr-1 g C-1) rates in comparison to other sponges. A net release of nitrogen was detected as NO3-. Bacteria were removed from the water filtered with up to 99% efficiency, yet comprised only 5% of the sponges’ total carbon budget; the remainder consisted of dissolved organic carbon and detritus. High bacterial removal was aided by the presence of a tight gasket of cells that surrounds the collar of each choanocyte filter. A test for potential bypass canals showed removal of fluorescent microspheres until they were excreted 5-12 hours after feeding. Electron micrographs showed active uptake of E. coli ‘fed’ to the sponge as well as phagocytosis of symbiont microbes by sponge cells in the mesohyl. These data provide the first comprehensive study of metabolism in a deep-water high microbial abundance sponge.
    Subjects: Geodia, Sponge, Porifera, Feeding, carbon, Filtration
    Date Created: 2017/05/26
  6. Respiration and Excurrent Velocity DATA for 5 demosponges - Data associated with: Ludeman, Reidenbach and Leys, JEB 2017 The energetic cost of filtration by demosponges and their behavioural response to ambient currents [Download]

    Title: Respiration and Excurrent Velocity DATA for 5 demosponges - Data associated with: Ludeman, Reidenbach and Leys, JEB 2017 The energetic cost of filtration by demosponges and their behavioural response to ambient currents
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: Abstract: Sponges (Porifera) are abundant in most marine and freshwater ecosystems and as suspension feeders they play a crucial role in filtering the water column. Their active pumping enables them to filter up to 900 times their body volume of water per hour, recycling nutrients and coupling a pelagic food supply with benthic communities. Despite the ecological importance of sponge filter feeding, little is known about how sponges control the water flow through their canal system or how much energy it costs to filter the water. Sponges have long been considered textbook examples of animals that use current-induced flow. We provide evidence that suggests that some species of demosponge do not use current-induced flow, rather they respond behaviourally to increased ambient currents by reducing the volume of water filtered. Using a morphometric model of the canal system, we also show that filter feeding may be more energetically costly than previously thought. Measurements of volumetric flow rates and oxygen removal in five species of demosponge show that pumping rates are variable within and between species, with more oxygen consumed the greater the volume filtered. Together these data suggest that sponges have active control over the volume of water they process, which may be an adaptation to reduce the energetic cost of filtration in times of high stress.
    Subjects: Porifera, Filtration, Ecophysiology, Demosponges, Sponge, Energetics
    Date Created: 2017/02/14
  7. Cost of filtration DATA for 5 demosponges - Data associated with: Ludeman, Reidenbach and Leys - JEB 2017 The energetic cost of filtration by demosponges and their behavioural response to ambient currents [Download]

    Title: Cost of filtration DATA for 5 demosponges - Data associated with: Ludeman, Reidenbach and Leys - JEB 2017 The energetic cost of filtration by demosponges and their behavioural response to ambient currents
    Creator: Sally Leys
    Description: Abstract: Sponges (Porifera) are abundant in most marine and freshwater ecosystems and as suspension feeders they play a crucial role in filtering the water column. Their active pumping enables them to filter up to 900 times their body volume of water per hour, recycling nutrients and coupling a pelagic food supply with benthic communities. Despite the ecological importance of sponge filter feeding, little is known about how sponges control the water flow through their canal system or how much energy it costs to filter the water. Sponges have long been considered textbook examples of animals that use current-induced flow. We provide evidence that suggests that some species of demosponge do not use current-induced flow, rather they respond behaviourally to increased ambient currents by reducing the volume of water filtered. Using a morphometric model of the canal system, we also show that filter feeding may be more energetically costly than previously thought. Measurements of volumetric flow rates and oxygen removal in five species of demosponge show that pumping rates are variable within and between species, with more oxygen consumed the greater the volume filtered. Together these data suggest that sponges have active control over the volume of water they process, which may be an adaptation to reduce the energetic cost of filtration in times of high stress.
    Subjects: Porifera, Filtration, Ecophysiology, Demosponges, Sponge, Energetics
    Date Created: 2017/02/14
  8. Sycon coactum - transcriptome [Download]

    Title: Sycon coactum - transcriptome
    Creator: Leys, Sally
    Description: Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness—many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges—but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell–cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.
    Subjects: Porifera, calcareous sponge, Sycon coactum, sponge transcriptome
    Date Created: 2014/02/27
  9. Spongilla lacustris Trinity transcriptome [Download]

    Title: Spongilla lacustris Trinity transcriptome
    Creator: Leys, Sally
    Description: Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness—many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges—but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown.We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives ofmostmolecules involved in cell–cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.
    Subjects: Spongilla lacustris, Freshwater sponge, Porifera transcriptome
    Date Created: 2014/02/27
  10. Aphrocallistes vastus Trinity transcriptome [Download]

    Title: Aphrocallistes vastus Trinity transcriptome
    Creator: Leys, Sally
    Description: Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness—many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges—but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown.We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives ofmostmolecules involved in cell–cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.
    Subjects: Porifera, Transcriptome, Glass sponge, Hexactinellid
    Date Created: 2014/02/11