ERA

Occupational Therapy

Number of results to display per page
Items in this Collection
  1. SRT QUALITY OF EVIDENCE IN MILD AD [Download]

    Title: SRT QUALITY OF EVIDENCE IN MILD AD
    Creator: Misener, Samantha
    Description: Background: Several studies have used spaced-retrieval training (SRT) to teach persons with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) different targeted goals (Mahendra, 2001). Several systematic reviews have shown mixed reviews on its efficacy within this population (Hopper et al., 2013). The aim of the current study is to determine whether or not the quality of evidence available on SRT is good enough to support the use of it within the older adult mild to moderate AD population. Methods: A critical review of ten studies conducted since 2005 that use SRT as an intervention with older adults with mild to moderate AD were critically reviewed using the McMaster Critical Review protocol. Findings: The efficacy of SRT within the population is compromised by a variety of protocols used across studies making it difficulty to properly crosscompare. The strength and quality of evidence is compromised by the misuse of study designs, low sample sizes and inconsistent use of outcome measures and control groups. Conclusions: The findings identified a multitude of methodological limitations within the current literature. It is recommended that RCT’s or within-subject study designs using an ample sample size, a more standardized SRT protocol, and an age, sex, education and severity of AD matched control group be conducted before OT’s introduce SRT as an evidence-based toolbox item.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, Spaced-Retrieval Training, SRT, Alzheimer’s dementia
    Date Created: 2016
  2. Errorless learning for face-­‐name associations in an Alzheimer’s population: A critical review [Download]

    Title: Errorless learning for face-­‐name associations in an Alzheimer’s population: A critical review
    Creator: Mazzon, Megan
    Description: Background: The amount of people living with Alzheimer’s disease in our elderly population is on the rise (Alzheimer’s Association, 2013). Cognitive deficits are a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease and those who have been diagnosed experience related functional impairments. Errorless learning (EL) is one specific cognitive training technique that is used to enhance memory and minimize associated deficits. The objective of this review is to analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of EL training for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, specifically for training of face-­‐name associations. In addition, the quality of evidence will be analyzed. Methods: A search was conducted using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, PyschINFO, and MEDLINE. Articles were scanned for inclusion/exclusion criteria, and 10 studies published between 1999-­‐2010 were selected for an in-­‐depth review. Results: After review, it is evident that the literature in this area lacks standardized methodology and results vary. EL has proven to be an effective learning strategy, although not always more effective than other cognitive training techniques. It is still debatable what conditions are required to obtain positive outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent the benefits persist over time and/or generalize to a social context. Conclusions: The current evidence is not strong enough to recommend implementing EL training over other cognitive techniques. However, this review provides clinicians with important information related to EL interventions. More research is needed in order to validate and expand on current findings.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, errorless learning, Alzheimer, EL
    Date Created: 2016
  3. An exploration of teacher perception toward occupational therapy and occupational therapy practices: a scoping review [Download]

    Title: An exploration of teacher perception toward occupational therapy and occupational therapy practices: a scoping review
    Creator: Truong, Vi
    Description: Studies have provided evidence of the value and effectiveness of occupational therapy within the school environment, with our knowledge and skillset contributing to student functioning. It is well established that students with a variety of needs benefit from occupational therapy intervention, that collaborative consultation between teacher and therapist is critical for intervention effectiveness and that intervention assists in reducing future costs to both the health care and social service systems (CAOT, 2002). Methods: A scoping review using Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) Five-step Methodological Framework was completed in order to understand teacher’s perceptions toward occupational therapy and occupational therapy practices. Results: Three major themes from this review emerged: (1) confusion over the occupational therapy role and scope of practice among teachers; (2) teachers desired more reciprocal communication and more opportunities to collaborate with the occupational therapist, but were aware of systemic constraints; (3) occupational therapists need to develop a greater awareness of the needs of the classroom within the education system. Conclusion: These themes all have clinical implications for the occupational therapy profession, and its enrichment and promotion within school-based practices. The occupational therapist needs to clearly define their role to teachers and advocate for increased communication and time allocated to collaboration. The occupational therapist should also factor in teacher differences, classroom dynamics and feasibility of occupational therapy recommendations within the classroom prior to placing them upon teachers to implement. Additionally, assumptions about the classroom should not be made without the understanding that each classroom is distinctly unique in how it operates on a day-to-day basis. It is key to flexibly adapt our practices to accommodate to the confines of the education system, yet meet the needs of students in a client-centered, holistic and evidence-based manner.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, perception, occupational therapy practices, teacher
    Date Created: 2016
  4. The Implications of Direct Attention Training on Functional Improvement in Adults who have Experienced a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) [Download]

    Title: The Implications of Direct Attention Training on Functional Improvement in Adults who have Experienced a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
    Creator: Zapf, Melanie
    Description: Background. Attention deficits are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have negative impacts on cognitive processes and daily life. Direct attention training is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving performance on neuropsychological tests of attention, but its impact on everyday functioning is less clear. The purpose of this paper is to determine the strength of the evidence for the impact of direct attention training on functional outcomes in individuals with attention deficits following TBI. Methods. A McMaster critical review was done to address the study question, utilizing the McMaster quantitative research form to guide judgments about study quality. Eight articles were selected for inclusion. Findings. Three articles were determined to be of weak overall quality, and five were determined to be of moderate quality. The conclusions of these studies are mixed but the overall trend suggests that direct attention training has little impact on the functional difficulties resulting from attention deficits following TBI. Conclusions. Given the low to moderate quality of the included studies and the small amount of impact found, the findings of this review do not support the use of direct attention training in occupational therapy practice. Future research should utilize more rigorous methodology to generate more conclusive results that can be used to guide treatment decisions.
    Subjects: traumatic brain injury, TBI, cognitive training, direct cognitive training, attention training, direct attention training, adult, occupational therapy
    Date Created: 2016
  5. Parent’s perceptions of their child who has a disability, position on stage during school performances [Download]

    Title: Parent’s perceptions of their child who has a disability, position on stage during school performances
    Creator: Wynnyk, Terenia
    Description: Background: Inclusive education has been implemented in schools across Canada to ensure that students who have disabilities can participate and are fully welcome in classrooms. There is a gap in the literature, regarding how students who have disabilities are incorporated into their school performances as well as a gap when discussing their physical placement on the stage within their group of peers. An understanding of parental perceptions of the child’s education is critical as parents are initiators and advocates of reform, therefore, able to choose or change their children’s involvement. Furthermore, parents’ perceptions are critical in establishing the social validity of inclusive education (Dennis, Williams, Giangreco, & Cloninger, 1993). The well-established occupational therapy model by Law et al., (1996) called the Person, Environment, Occupation Model (PEO) was used to guide this study in order to get a holistic understanding of the parent, child and the performances that occurred. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore how parents whose children have disabilities perceive their physical placement within a group of peers during school wide performances. Methods: The principal investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with three parent participants to understand their perceptions and experiences regarding their child’s school performances. Each of the children had different disabilities all which involved physical and cognitive complexities. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach to thematic analysis was used to identify, analyze and report themes within the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data analysis: a) child’s unidentifiable views, b) involvement trumps placement, c) school staff influence, and d) parental advocacy. Implications: Many occupational therapists work within school boards and have the opportunity to impact the children they work with by providing adaptations to help facilitate their participation in school performances. Occupational therapists can be consulted and coach classroom and music teachers how a child’s physical placement among peers impact relationships and a child’s confidence. In collaboration with the teacher, occupational therapists can identify placement (positioning) considerations such as safety, support and as well as inclusion. The occupational therapist can also consult with a child’s parents and recommend the teacher work with the parents as well to ensure the family is involved and encouraged with their child’s involvement.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, school performances, children, disability, parents, perceptions
    Date Created: 2016/05/20
  6. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing at Improving Medication Adherence in Clients with Schizophrenia [Download]

    Title: Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing at Improving Medication Adherence in Clients with Schizophrenia
    Creator: Wright, Emily S.
    Description: Background: Adherence to antipsychotic medication in clients with schizophrenia has a number of benefits yet rates of non-adherence remain high in this population. Many factors influence adherence, including motivation. One of the interventions aimed to address medication adherence is motivational interviewing (MI). Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of MI based interventions at improving medication adherence in clients with schizophrenia. Psychopathology and functional outcome measures are also examined. Additionally, this paper aims to address the role of Occupational Therapists in the domain of medication adherence and the use of MI. Methods: A critical literature review is completed. Databases searched include Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Removal of duplicates, and articles that do not meet inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in a total of 11 articles reviewed. The Law et al., (1998) McMaster University Occupational Therapy Guidelines for Critical Review Form is used to evaluate the methodological rigor of studies. Results: The overall methodological quality of the studies included is moderate. Few studies found improvements in medication adherence or functional outcomes. More studies found reduced rates of psychopathology although these results are also limited. Adapted versions of MI are common (i.e., compliance therapy, adherence therapy, and treatment adherence therapy) and outcome measures vary across studies. Conclusions: Occupational Therapists would benefit from interventions or techniques to elicit motivation in clients’ non-adherent with their medication. However, MI based interventions do not significantly address this need.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, motivational interviewing, clients, Schizophrenia, medication adherence
    Date Created: 2016/05/20
  7. The Experience of South Asian Parents caring for Children with Disabilities: A Metasynthesis [Download]

    Title: The Experience of South Asian Parents caring for Children with Disabilities: A Metasynthesis
    Creator: Wood, Danica
    Description: Objective: To provide a more in-depth understanding of the experience of South Asian Muslim immigrants caring for children with disabilities. Data Source: Qualitative studies were identified using library databases including CINAHL, ERIC, Science Direct, SPORT Discuss, and SocINDEX. Data extraction and synthesis: Noblit and Hare’s (1988) meta ethnographic approach was used to synthesize 9 qualitative studies. Each study was carefully read several times and a colour coding system was developed in order to categorize themes. Overarching metaphors were identified to gain a more comprehensive and contextual understanding of the experience of South Asian immigrant parents caring for a child with a disability Conclusion: The experience of South Asian immigrant parents caring for a child with a disability can be influenced by numerous factors including religion, social perspectives, family identity, acculturation, socioeconomic status, and interactions with healthcare professionals and service providers. Further research is required in order to develop culturally appropriate occupational therapy modalities of practice for working with South Asian immigrant families in Canada.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, South Asian parents, care, children, disabilities
    Date Created: 2015/05/25
  8. The methodological quality of non-pharmacological interventions for sleep disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A critical review [Download]

    Title: The methodological quality of non-pharmacological interventions for sleep disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A critical review
    Creator: Wong, Esther
    Description: Background: Disordered sleep is experienced by many individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Non-pharmacological interventions are needed to prevent, reduce and manage sleep disturbances to promote increased performance in daily activities, and increase quality of life for individuals and their caregivers. Purpose: To determine the strength of evidence for non-pharmacological interventions for sleep disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Method: A critical review was conducted using the McMaster University Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group protocol to determine the methodological quality of quantitative and qualitative outcome studies. Results: The search resulted in eight quantitative studies and one qualitative study. The interventions included sleep hygiene education, cognitive behaviour therapy, light therapy, use of technology and exercise. Most reviewed studies were of moderate quality, with two studies being of strong quality. There is the greatest overall support for the use of physical activity as a non-pharmacological intervention. Conclusions: The studies reviewed support the need for increased development of the evidence base in this area, and the interventions presented suggest promising outcomes. The results support the need for more rigorous research in this area.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, sleep, Parkinson disease, non-pharmacological interventions
    Date Created: 2016/05/20
  9. The Effects of a Panniculectomy on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Individuals with Obesity; A Critical Literature Review [Download]

    Title: The Effects of a Panniculectomy on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Individuals with Obesity; A Critical Literature Review
    Creator: Wong, Chelsea
    Description: Background: Occupational therapists are well positioned to work with bariatric patients on improving their functional and social/emotional well-being whether they are in a preoperative, postoperative, or nonoperative stage. The negative physical, functional, and psychological effects of an abdominal pannus following massive weight loss are well recognized in the literature. Whether or not a panniculectomy can improve an individual’s health-related quality of life has not been well documented in the literature. Methods: A critical review has been undertaken to assess whether or not, and how, a panniculectomy can improve an individual’s health related quality of life, based on preexisting peer-reviewed studies. A preliminary literature search yielded 28 articles. After review, 4 studies were appropriate for inclusion in this critical review. Findings: 177 subjects (154 females, 13 males) were included in various studies that assessed the impact of a panniculectomy on specific realms of an individual’s health-related quality of life. The studies included in this critical review demonstrate statistically significant improvements in physical function, and trends towards improvement in emotional and social well-being following a panniculectomy. Conclusion: Though more research is needed in this area to determine the generalizability of the results, the existing data demonstrates improvements in different domains of an individual’s HRQoL following a panniculectomy. The holistic view of health encompassed in assessing an individual’s health related quality of life places occupational therapists in a position to address the physical, functional, and social/emotional concerns with bariatric patients.
    Subjects: panniculectomy, health-related quality of life, occupational therapy
    Date Created: 2016/05/20
  10. Options for Adolescents with FASD Transitioning to Adulthood: A Scoping Review [Download]

    Title: Options for Adolescents with FASD Transitioning to Adulthood: A Scoping Review
    Creator: Wolf, Kathryn
    Description: Abstract: This scoping review examined options available for adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) transitioning to adulthood. The term options here includes housing, financial support, community resources, vocational and volunteer opportunities. Background: Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) face additional barriers to transition that can affect their participation in chosen occupations. FASD is a lifelong permanent condition which affects the central nervous system and can lead to concerns in the areas of cognition, executive function, motor development, emotional regulation, behaviour, and learning. Methods: A scoping review was conducted. Eligible studies were English language with no restriction placed on date published. Gray literature was also examined to supplement findings. Findings: limited research was found directly related to the proposed research question. Four key themes emerged from this review. These include: Factors inherent to FASD that make transition to adulthood a challenge, Environmental influences on development, Vocational training programs as an option to help facilitate transition, and Skills required for transition to adulthood. Discussion: The primary recommendation was for support related to vocation and skills training. Training with a focus on skills that are needed for independent living or supported living is highly recommended for this population. Family support is also recommended. Conclusion: Further research is required for a more comprehensive investigation of the topic.
    Subjects: FASD, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, FAS, Fetal Alcohol, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Healthcare professionals, Healthcare providers, Adolescents, young adults, vocational programs, transition to adulthood, occupational therapy
    Date Created: 2016/05/19