ERA

Occupational Therapy

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  1. Raising children with disability from the perspective of parents with disability: A secondary thematic analysis of qualitative interviews [Download]

    Title: Raising children with disability from the perspective of parents with disability: A secondary thematic analysis of qualitative interviews
    Creator: Duhaime, Erin
    Description: Background: In current literature there is a lack of research on the lived experience of raising children with disability from the perspective of parents with disability. There is an imperative need for an improved preventative support network for parents with disabilities. The perspective of the families in which both a parent and child experience disability will be vital in creating an environment conducive for all families regardless of the nature of their disability. Purpose: To generate an understanding of the challenges encountered in the everyday lived experience of raising children with disability from the perspective of parents with disability. Methods: Secondary thematic analysis of nine-ecocultural family structured interviews (EFI), families in which a parent with a disability is raising a child with disability. Interviews explored the everyday challenges and accomplishments of sustaining a routine of family life that accommodates the needs and interests of a child with disabilities and all other family members. Findings: Themes emerged around navigating the health and social systems, time crunch, parental instinct, parent health, the social factor, unconditional love for the child and the financial factor. Five of the themes also contained subthemes. Conclusion: Raising children with disability, from the perspective of parents with disability is under researched. The research obtained in this study, gives preliminary insight into the challenges experienced in their everyday lives. It is recommended that more research be conducted to gain a better understanding on specific challenges they encounter and how this heterogeneous population can be supported.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, parent with disability, child with disability, families, disability, ecocultural theory (ECT), challenges, secondary thematic analysis, qualitative research
    Date Created: 2016/6/23
  2. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR ON-­‐TASK BEHAVIOURS [Download]

    Title: EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR ON-­‐TASK BEHAVIOURS
    Creator: Duddridge, Ria
    Description: Introduction: Individuals with Autism often experience challenges related to their ability to remain on-task. Existing research has found positive associations between physical activity participation and improvements in on-task behaviours for typically developing children and adolescents. However, less is known about this relationship for those with Autism. Objectives: To examine the quality of evidence investigating effects of physical activity-based interventions on on-task behaviours of children and adolescents (mean age 3 to 17.99 years) with Autism. Methods: A critical review of the literature was conducte. Keywords for Autism (i.e. autis* OR ASD), physical activities (i.e. physical activit* OR jogging) and on-task behaviours (i.e. attention OR engagement OR participation) were searched in multiple databases. Relevant articles were extracted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. An in-depth analysis using the McMaster University Guidelines for Critical Review (Law et al. 1998a, 1998b) determined the strength of the studies included for review. Results: Reviewed articles scored low in methodological quality for inconsistent reporting of reliability and validity of outcome measures. However, all studies found positive associations between physical activity and on-task behaviours. Physical activity interventions included jogging, walking, exergaming, cycling and trampoline jumping. Conclusions: Results offer occupational therapists evidence of the benefits of physical activity for improving the on-task behaviours of children with autism. However further investigation to draw confident conclusions is warranted. Recommendations for additional research are made.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, autism, physical activity, children, On-­‐Task Behaviour
    Date Created: 2016/5/18
  3. The effects of disability on the differential treatment and outcomes of children placed in the foster care system: A Scoping Review [Download]

    Title: The effects of disability on the differential treatment and outcomes of children placed in the foster care system: A Scoping Review
    Creator: Drybrough, Colleen
    Description: Background: Children with disabilities are currently over-represented in the foster care population, with numbers expected to continue to rise. This vulnerable population encounters many obstacles in life as a result of living with a disability, which can be heightened through placement in the foster care system. Currently, no existing review or synthesis of evidence pertaining to the outcomes of children with developmental disabilities in the foster care system could be identified. The aim of the study was to identify the scope of knowledge regarding if children with developmental disabilities experience differential and/or negative outcomes when placed in the foster care system. Methods: A scoping review was conducted, including an extensive literature search, followed by completing a thematic analysis to synthesize the literature results. Findings: Ten articles were included for review in this study. Thematic analysis identified four major outcomes affected by having a developmental disability including: type of placement/ restrictiveness, placement stability/length of stay, permanency/placement disruption, and general/lifestyle outcomes. Each major outcome identified significant differences between children with developmental disabilities in foster care and those without a disability. Conclusion: The results of this review indicate that within the four major themes identified, children with disabilities in the foster care system often experience differential treatment and/or outcomes compared to children without disabilities. The combination of traumatic life experiences, both prior and during foster care, combined with a developmental disability can lead these children along a path of barriers, which are extremely challenging to overcome. Limited data and literature exists documenting the experiences of children with disabilities placed in the foster care system. Further investigation into this topic is required in order to create client-centered, experiential driven interventions to improve the outcomes for this population.
    Subjects: disability, foster care system, children, treatment
    Date Created: 2016/5/20
  4. A critical review of the methodological quality of the evidence for using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia in women with breast cancer [Download]

    Title: A critical review of the methodological quality of the evidence for using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia in women with breast cancer
    Creator: deBruyn, Rolena
    Description: Background. Individuals with breast cancer have the highest rates of insomnia of any other cancer population. Insomnia can impact daily functioning and engagement in occupations. Occupational therapists are experts in understanding and addressing the impacts of insomnia, and are qualified to assess and treat this condition. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is currently the gold standard treatment for insomnia in most populations; however, for individuals with breast cancer who suffer from insomnia secondary to cancer, it is unclear as to the effectiveness of this treatment. The evidence supporting this treatment method in this population needs to be validated by examining the methodological quality of the research. Methods. A critical review of the literature was used to determine the methodological quality of the evidence for CBTI in women with breast cancer as the intervention relates to functional outcomes. The McMaster Critical Review form for quantitative research was utilized to extract the criterion based methodological quality data from the included articles and to provide a basis for making quality decisions when evaluating the included studies. Findings. Eight articles were included in this review, including two articles with a single-case design, and six articles with a randomized controlled trial design. The methodological strengths and weaknesses for each article were determined utilizing the McMaster protocol, and the overall quality of the research was judged. Most of the articles utilized rigorous methodologies, standardized assessments, and a mixed method approach. Conclusions. The majority of the reviewed studies met most, if not all, of the quality criteria and thus concluding good methodological quality. Given overall good quality of the included studies, there is sufficient evidence to support CBTI as an efficacious treatment for insomnia in the breast cancer population. Occupational therapists should therefore feel confident when utilizing this treatment modality in this population. Future research should focus on the possibility of developing a stepped care model to treat insomnia in this population, as currently the availability of treatment is limited to this population.
    Subjects: occupational therapists, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, insomnia, women, breast cancer
    Date Created: 2016/5/16
  5. Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation for the Upper Extremity in Improving Activity Participation among Acute and Subacute Stroke Survivors with Hemiplegia: A Critical Review [Download]

    Title: Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation for the Upper Extremity in Improving Activity Participation among Acute and Subacute Stroke Survivors with Hemiplegia: A Critical Review
    Creator: Choy, Kimberly
    Description: Impairments resulting from stroke lead to decreased ability to complete activities of daily living. Functional electrical stimulation is commonly used to treat upper extremity impairments among stroke survivors but reviews of the effectiveness on improving ADL participation are limited. This critical review aims to examine the quality of relevant literature to determine effectiveness of upper extremity FES intervention on ADL participation among acute and subacute stroke subjects. A search of the literature found five studies meeting the inclusion criteria, and methodological quality of each study was assessed using the McMaster Protocol for Quantitative Review. Four studies were evaluated as moderate quality evidence and one as low quality evidence. All studies reported improvements but there was conflicting evidence as to whether FES in conjunction with conventional therapy was more effective in improving ADL participation than conventional therapy alone. This review concludes that FES may be effective in improving participation in activities of daily living; however, there is a paucity of high quality evidence to support this. The substance of available evidence focuses on impairment level outcomes. It is recommended that further high quality research be completed, focusing on outcomes meaningful to occupational therapy practice such as amount and quality of activity participation. Additionally, future study designs should incorporate greater follow up to examine the long-term or sustained effectiveness of this intervention.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, activity participation, Functional Electrical Stimulation, Upper Extremity, Stroke Survivors, hemiplegia
    Date Created: 2016/5/20
  6. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Housing First [Download]

    Title: The Role of Occupational Therapy in Housing First
    Creator: Butchart, Lauren
    Description: BACKGROUND: Occupational Therapists (OTs) who work with homeless populations have traditionally focused on the remediation of one’s poor basic living skills and general rehabilitation, but a recent shift in Canada’s approach to homelessness, which emphasizes the need for an individual to receive housing before treatment, may require OTs to alter how they practice within this domain. OBJECTIVE: To identify how OTs do and can play a role within Housing First (HF). APPROACH: A scoping review of articles written in English between 2005-2015 that specified a role for OT in HF were reviewed. RESULTS: Three common themes emerged: the client voice is valuable, OTs need to widen our current scope of practice with the homeless population, and occupation-based rehabilitation is central to one’s recovery. Gaps in knowledge exist around the role of OT on Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Intensive Case Management (ICM) teams, and evaluations of OT interventions and assessments used in HF are lacking. CONCLUSION: Future research focusing on the identified gaps of knowledge will help determine what evidence based practice for OTs looks like in HF. Defining a clearer role for OT in HF will provide practitioners considering a move into HF, or already working within it better direction, and the government a better understanding of why OTs should be funded to work in this area.
    Subjects: housing first, rehabilitation, occupational therapists
    Date Created: 2016/5/20
  7. Occupations, Client Factors, and Performance Skills Impacted by Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Amongst the Javanese [Download]

    Title: Occupations, Client Factors, and Performance Skills Impacted by Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Amongst the Javanese
    Creator: Bullock, Marie
    Description: Background: Few research has been conducted on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the Javanese, let alone through an occupational therapy lens. Methods: This study is a supplementary secondary data analysis of Brintnell et al.’s 2013 study findings. Content analysis was conducted applying the American Occupational Therapy Association’s 2014 Framework as a coding scheme. Seventy-seven, of the original 98, statements were analyzed. Findings: Secondary content analysis yielded results in the following areas as being impacted by MDD: occupations, client factors, and performance skills. Conclusions: Further research is needed to confirm the study findings and is required in order to develop appropriate assessment and intervention measures for this population.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, secondary data analysis, content analysis, occupations, daily activities, depression, Indonesia, Java
    Date Created: 2016/5/30
  8. THUMB SPLINTS FOR PERSONS WITH CMC OA [Download]

    Title: THUMB SPLINTS FOR PERSONS WITH CMC OA
    Creator: Brown, Sara
    Description: Background. Carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (CMC OA) affects many older people, mostly women, and can be debilitating when it comes to completing activities of daily living independently. People who suffer from pain in their CMC joint lose their functional capabilities and a conservative treatment for this disease is to use a thumb splint to immobilize and rest the joint. Purpose. To determine the methodological quality of evidence for thumb splints in persons with CMC OA. Methods. A critical review method was used to methodologically review the current literature of splinting interventions for people with CMC OA. Findings. Ten studies were reviewed and it was found that three were rated as weak evidence, six as moderate evidence and one as strong evidence. This shows that there is a gap in the literature when it comes to strong evidence to support the use of thumb splints for persons who suffer from CMC OA. Implications. Further research should be conducted using strong evidence that focuses solely on splinting, rather than other co-interventions, larger sample sizes, and sample sizes that are more representative of the population.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, Carpometacarpal osteoarthritis, thumb splints
    Date Created: 2016/5/20
  9. Alcohol-related dementia vs. Alzheimer and related progressive dementias: A comparison of the cognitive deficits and neuropsychological profiles [Download]

    Title: Alcohol-related dementia vs. Alzheimer and related progressive dementias: A comparison of the cognitive deficits and neuropsychological profiles
    Creator: Brown, Chantal
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pathology and neuropsychological profile of alcohol-related dementia in comparison to Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia and the role that occupational therapy occupies for clients with the disorder. Limitations exist within the literature regarding alcohol-related dementia as it is questioned whether it is itself a distinct clinical entity. There is a lack of consensus within the research regarding the diagnostic criteria of alcohol-related dementia and no current literature exists to rectify this issue. Alcohol-related dementia differs from other dementias in terms of the deficits experienced. Compared to Alzheimer’s disease, those with alcohol related dementia have more issues in regards to fine motor control, free recall, and initial letter fluency. Research has discussed the potential for alcohol-related dementia to be partially reversible if an individual abstains from alcohol. Abstinence from alcohol may allow an individual to experience improvements in attention, problem solving, working memory, and visuo-spatial functioning. Gaps exist within the literature as to an agreed upon definition of alcohol-related dementia as well as there is currently no formal assessment or tool that is specifically sensitive to alcohol-related dementia. This allows future research to come to a consensus regarding an alcohol-related dementia diagnosis. Occupational therapists are able to combine their knowledge of addiction as well as dementia to be able to appropriately intervene in the care of individuals with alcohol-related dementia.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, alcohol related dementia, dementia, Alzheimer
    Date Created: 2016/8/22
  10. Evidence for the Use of Functional Tasks in the Rehabilitation of Attention Following Acquired Brain Injury: A Critical Review [Download]

    Title: Evidence for the Use of Functional Tasks in the Rehabilitation of Attention Following Acquired Brain Injury: A Critical Review
    Creator: Bronson, Heather
    Description: Background. Acquired brain injury is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Cognitive deficits, particularly deficits in attention, lead to considerable difficulty engaging in necessary day-to-day tasks and occupations. Evidence for the effect of current rehabilitation for attention on ability to engage in day-to-day tasks is limited. Attention rehabilitation with a more functional focus is needed. Methods. A critical review of the literature was conducted in order to determine the strength and quality of the evidence available for the effectiveness of rehabilitation of attention using functional tasks. Findings. Of the six studies meeting the inclusion criteria, quality ranged from weak-moderate to moderate-strong, with most studies lacking important methodological indicators of quality. Discussion. There is evidence that the use of functional tasks as a means for the rehabilitation of attention following acquired brain injury is effective. Further study with greater methodological rigour is needed to determine the most effective methods for implementing functionally-based interventions.
    Subjects: occupational therapy, acquired brain injury, functional tasks, attention rehabilitation
    Date Created: 2016/5/18